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chemical reactions

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Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 July 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.fec.t65940023
EISBN: 978-1-62708-302-7
... Abstract This chapter provides a thorough introduction to the electrochemical thermodynamics that govern electrode reactions associated with corrosion. It begins with a review of the thermodynamic criteria for the stability of chemical reactions based on Gibbs free energy and explains how...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ssde.t52310019
EISBN: 978-1-62708-286-0
... Abstract Corrosion involves chemical reactions in equilibrium that that are understood through principles of thermodynamics. In practice, the rate at which corrosion reactions occur is the most important consideration. This chapter deals with corrosion kinetics, which allows engineers...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 November 2023
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ciktmse.t56080001
EISBN: 978-1-62708-460-4
... Abstract This chapter covers the engineering aspects of corrosion inhibitors and their effect on corrosion reactions. It explains how different metallic salts and heterocyclic compounds influence chemical reactions on metal surfaces exposed to corrosive media or environments. It describes how...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 October 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.lmub.t53550325
EISBN: 978-1-62708-307-2
... Abstract This chapter describes the molecular structures and chemical reactions associated with the production of thermoset and thermoplastic components. It compares and contrasts the mechanical properties of engineering plastics with those of metals, and explains how fillers and reinforcements...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 July 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.fec.t65940001
EISBN: 978-1-62708-302-7
... Abstract This chapter familiarizes readers with the basic concepts of corrosion, discussing chemical reactions, ion transfer mechanisms, electrochemical processes and variables, and the formation of solid corrosion products. It presents a simple but effective teaching tool, the elementary...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cub.t66910407
EISBN: 978-1-62708-250-1
... of the chemical reactions occurring at the surface of the protected structure, and the effects of cathodic protection on coatings. corrosion control cathodic protection anodic protection sacrificial cathodic protection systems impressed-current cathodic protection systems stray currents coatings...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2017
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.sccmpe2.t55090191
EISBN: 978-1-62708-266-2
..., the international consensus is that the three with the greatest impact on crack growth rates are the formation of material defects, radiation-induced segregation, and chemical reactions that increase the corrosion potential of water. The chapter discusses each of these in great detail, and includes information...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 October 2011
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mnm2.t53060013
EISBN: 978-1-62708-261-7
... of equilibrium phase diagrams, the role of enthalpy and Gibb’s free energy in chemical reactions, and a method for determining phase compositions along the solidus and liquidus lines. atomic diffusion body-centered cubic systems crystal defects equilibrium phase diagram face-centered cubic systems...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2007
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.htcma.t52080097
EISBN: 978-1-62708-304-1
... Abstract This chapter discusses the conditions under which carburization and metal dusting occur. It describes the chemical reactions and thermodynamic relationships that drive carburization and metal dusting attack and the factors that determine the amount of damage that metals and alloys...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 July 2009
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.bcp.t52230459
EISBN: 978-1-62708-298-3
... Abstract This chapter covers the corrosion behavior of beryllium in aqueous environments. It describes the chemical reactions that drive the corrosion process, the conditions required for equilibrium, and the factors that affect corrosion resistance. It discusses the stability of the native...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cfap.t69780329
EISBN: 978-1-62708-281-5
... in the corrosion of metals, in that function is slowly degraded in the external environment by chemical reactions and must be treated as limiting the true usefulness of the materials. In the future, the full and successful outdoor use of engineering plastics will undoubtedly depend on a clear understanding...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.msisep.t59220009
EISBN: 978-1-62708-259-4
... reduction processes. As iron in the ores is in an oxidized state (Fe +3 , Fe +2 ), the chemical reaction that transforms it into metallic iron (Fe 0 ) is a reduction reaction, and such processes are therefore called reduction processes. 2.1.1 The Blast Furnace The classical process for reduction...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.pb.t51230221
EISBN: 978-1-62708-351-5
... in character and conducive to metallic bonding. Therefore, in brazing to nonmetals, diffusion and chemical reaction are inextricably linked to wetting and spreading by the filler. The interaction between a braze and a nonmetal can take one of two forms. It may be classified as either chemical bonding...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cfap.t69780089
EISBN: 978-1-62708-281-5
... materials. Using these materials to fabricate hardware depends on a chemical process, in contrast to the more conventional metallic techniques, such as machining, heat forming, and mechanical fastening. Thermoset processing is further complicated in that its chemical reactions convert the materials...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ssde.t52310011
EISBN: 978-1-62708-286-0
... are presented in light of electrochemical potentials as opposed to purely chemical ones. Chapter 3 introduces the formal terms needed to describe electrode reaction kinetics. Chapter 4 describes the various forms of corrosion and how they are related to alloy metallurgy, chemistry, and structure. Chapter 5...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2007
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.htcma.t52080437
EISBN: 978-1-62708-304-1
... in development of microcracks and microfissures. At the same time, carbon is being removed from iron carbide (Fe 3 C) as a result of this chemical reaction, leading to decarburization in the affected region. The formation of microcracks and microfissures as well as decarburization causes the steel to lose its...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.isceg.t59320003
EISBN: 978-1-62708-332-4
... for combustion. Ore, fuel, and flux descend the stack and encounter hot combustion gases that are rich in carbon monoxide moving up the stack; this results in heat exchange and chemical reactions. Molten metal, which results from the reactions, collects at the furnace bottom. The impurities in the ore and coke...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2011
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.jub.t53290279
EISBN: 978-1-62708-306-5
...-dimensional crosslinked structures that are infusible and insoluble. Crosslinking results from chemical reactions that are driven by heat generated either by the chemical reactions themselves (i.e., exothermic heat of reaction) or by externally supplied heat. As curing progresses, the reactions accelerate...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 January 2023
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.itfdtktmse.t56060001
EISBN: 978-1-62708-440-6
..., compounds such as gallium arsenide are deposited by repeatedly applying a layer of one element (in this example, gallium), then a layer of the other (arsenic). The beam of material can be generated by either physical means (such as a furnace) or by a chemical reaction (such as chemical beam epitaxy). ALD...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cub.t66910001
EISBN: 978-1-62708-250-1
... Abstract Corrosion can be defined as a chemical or electrochemical reaction between a material, usually a metal, and its environment that produces a deterioration of the material and its properties. This chapter describes the effects and economic impact of corrosion in major industrial plants...