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chemical potential

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Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.pdub.t53420041
EISBN: 978-1-62708-310-2
... single-component and binary solid solutions. It then examines the relationship between the free energy of a solution and the chemical potentials of the individual components. It also explains how to account for the heat of mixing using quasi-chemical models, discusses the effect of interatomic bond...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.pdub.t53420231
EISBN: 978-1-62708-310-2
..., the partial molar Gibbs energy of a substance is usually called its chemical potential. If 1 mol of pure A is dissolved in an amount of solution so large that the solution concentration remains virtually unchanged, the Gibbs energy change for the mole of A ( Δ G ¯ A ) is...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.pdub.t53420171
EISBN: 978-1-62708-310-2
... diffusion can be understood when considering that the direction of atomic migration is governed by the gradient of chemical potential, not by the concentration gradient as stated by Fick’s first law. Atomic migration will occur from the region of high chemical potential to the region of low chemical...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.pdub.t53420239
EISBN: 978-1-62708-310-2
... in thermodynamic equilibrium with its neighboring layer on the other side of the interface. In other words, the chemical potential (activity) of species varies continuously through the product layers of the reaction zone and has the same value at both sides of an interphase interface. A diffusion...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.pdub.t53420263
EISBN: 978-1-62708-310-2
... of the associated functions and characteristics of phase equilibria, that is, phase diagrams, chemical potential diagrams, and so on. The actual calculation of phase equilibria in a multicomponent, multiphase system is a complex process involving a high level of computer programming. Details of...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.pdub.t53420015
EISBN: 978-1-62708-310-2
... metals will be able to dissolve an appreciable amount of the other metal, on the order of 10% or more. If the size factor differs by more than 15%, then solid-solution formation tends to be severely restricted. Rule 2—Chemical Affinity Factor . The greater the chemical affinity of two metals, the...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.pdub.t53420363
EISBN: 978-1-62708-310-2
... , 2nd ed. , Addison-Wesley Publishing Company , 1959 Selected References • Ashby M.F. and Jones D.R.H. , Engineering Materials 1—An Introduction to Their Properties, and Applications , 2nd ed. , Butterworth Heinemann , 1996 • Baker H. , The Chemical Elements...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.pdub.t53420303
EISBN: 978-1-62708-310-2
... steels when they are heated into the austenitic field and then rapidly quenched to room temperature. The martensite transformation differs from other phase transformations in several ways: (1) the reaction is a diffusionless phase transformation, (2) no chemical composition change occurs between...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ssde.t52310257
EISBN: 978-1-62708-286-0
... Abstract This chapter focuses on the applications of stainless steels in chemical and process industry, covering what data are necessary and how they can be found. It begins with an overview of single- and dual-environment systems and the corrosion issues they face. This is followed by a...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 April 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.imub.t53720139
EISBN: 978-1-62708-305-8
... Abstract The overall chemical composition of metals and alloys is most commonly determined by x-ray fluorescence (XRF) and optical emission spectroscopy (OES). High-temperature combustion and inert gas fusion methods are typically used to analyze dissolved gases (oxygen, nitrogen, and hydrogen...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.tpmpa.t54480293
EISBN: 978-1-62708-318-8
... operations. The chapter also covers chemical and electrochemical machining processes as well as flame cutting. chemical shaping machining titanium titanium alloys THIS CHAPTER INTRODUCES the terminology of conventional and nonconventional machining processes and details general guidelines for...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cfap.t69780146
EISBN: 978-1-62708-281-5
... plastic will have no effect on others. Thus, the potential stress cracking effect of a specific chemical on a specific plastic must be known from prior work or elucidated by direct experiment in order to know whether or not a problem exists. Several physical characteristics are typical of...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cfap.t69780089
EISBN: 978-1-62708-281-5
... Abstract This article focuses on characterization techniques used for analyzing the physical behavior and chemical composition of thermoset resins, namely chromatography and infrared spectroscopy. The main purpose is to give sufficient detail to permit the reader understand a particular test...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 July 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.fec.t65940023
EISBN: 978-1-62708-302-7
... electrochemical free energy per ion, g el , is composed of a chemical contribution, g, and a charge contribution, qϕ, such that: (Eq 2.48) g el = g + q ϕ where q is the charge on the ion, and ϕ is the electrical potential at the ion in the phase (solid or liquid). The electrical potential at...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cub.t66910049
EISBN: 978-1-62708-250-1
... . The corrosion protection methods indicated by methods D and E in Fig. 14 involve increasing and extending the potential-pH range over which passive behavior is observed. This can be accomplished by the addition of a passivating chemical species, such as chromate ions, to the environment, promoting...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2016
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.hpcspa.t54460107
EISBN: 978-1-62708-285-3
.... Courtesy of Air Products and Chemicals, Inc. Fig. 4.13 (a) Overview. (b) Liquid nitrogen storage tank and evaporator (Linde). (c) High-pressure compressors (J.A. Becker & Söhne) with storage tanks located below. (d) Pressure regulation panel (Polycontrols Technologies). Courtesy of National...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 July 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.fec.t65940087
EISBN: 978-1-62708-302-7
... Abstract This chapter lays the groundwork for understanding electrode kinetics associated with corrosion. It presents a simple but useful theory relating kinetics to the polarization behavior of half-cell reactions. The theory is based on the observation that electrode potentials vary as a...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 July 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.fec.t65940127
EISBN: 978-1-62708-302-7
... Abstract This chapter develops a corrosion model that accounts for solution potentials and the effects of coupling between cathodic and anodic reactions. It begins by examining potential differences at various points (in the solution) along a path from the anode to the cathode area. It then...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2017
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.sccmpe2.t55090191
EISBN: 978-1-62708-266-2
... international consensus is that the three with the greatest impact on crack growth rates are the formation of material defects, radiation-induced segregation, and chemical reactions that increase the corrosion potential of water. The chapter discusses each of these in great detail, and includes information on...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2009
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.sfa.t52780093
EISBN: 978-1-62708-268-6
... Abstract After the fault-tree, a failure-cause identification method has identified potential failure causes and the failure analysis team has prepared a failure mode assessment and assignment (FMA&A). The team knows specifically what to search for when examining components and...