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chemical kinetics

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Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ssde.t52310019
EISBN: 978-1-62708-286-0
... Abstract Corrosion involves chemical reactions in equilibrium that that are understood through principles of thermodynamics. In practice, the rate at which corrosion reactions occur is the most important consideration. This chapter deals with corrosion kinetics, which allows engineers...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cfap.t69780089
EISBN: 978-1-62708-281-5
... of the relationship between chemical reactions and successful thermoset processing and high-quality finished hardware, kinetic studies of thermoset resin systems have increased. This result is due to the importance of understanding cure mechanisms and assessing the degree of cure/fractional conversion based...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1996
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.phtpclas.t64560127
EISBN: 978-1-62708-353-9
... Abstract This chapter first examines the tempering behavior of plain carbon steels and then that of alloy steels. Next, some correlations are examined which allow estimations of the tempered hardness from the chemical compositions, tempering temperature and tempering time. The chapter...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2007
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.htcma.t52080005
EISBN: 978-1-62708-304-1
... . Fig. 3.5 Different oxidation kinetics. Source: Ref 11 3.3.1 Parabolic Kinetics When the oxide scale forms on the metal surface, the oxidation reaction is controlled by the diffusion of ions through the oxide scale, which is in turn controlled by the chemical potential gradient...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2007
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.htcma.t52080067
EISBN: 978-1-62708-304-1
... at 1090 °C (2000 °F). ammonia chemical kinetics nitridation thermodynamic potential 4.1 Introduction In air or combustion atmospheres containing nitrogen, nitridation can take place under certain exposure conditions. In most cases, oxidation dominates the high-temperature corrosion...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cfap.t69780323
EISBN: 978-1-62708-281-5
... the kinetics of the environmental crazing/cracking behavior of polymers ( Ref 3 ). With organic agents, which sorb into polymers very little, failures of plastics are still observed under low stresses ( Ref 1 – 4 ). In the absence of an applied stress, no apparent chemical or physical change is observed...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.pdub.t53420231
EISBN: 978-1-62708-310-2
... Abstract Gas-metal reactions can have a significant impact on metals and alloys, affecting their properties (during processing) and accelerating service failures, particularly in hot, corrosive environments. This chapter discusses the kinetics of gas-metal reactions and how they are driven...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 November 2023
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ciktmse.t56080029
EISBN: 978-1-62708-460-4
..., and the development of a test plan to evaluate the long-term corrosion protection of a potential inhibitor. acid pickling corrosion current density corrosion inhibitors corrosion kinetics corrosion potential inhibitor efficiency PDS curves Stern-Geary equation Tafel slope Problem 1 List...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 July 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.fec.t65940127
EISBN: 978-1-62708-302-7
... and current densities, polarization characteristics, and physical variables such as anode-to-cathode area ratios and fluid velocity. It also discusses the effect of corrosion inhibitors, galvanic coupling, and external currents, making extensive use of polarization curves. chemical kinetics corrosion...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cfap.t69780383
EISBN: 978-1-62708-281-5
... in the spectral energy scale when using different x-ray energies, the data are displayed on a binding-energy, rather than kinetic-energy, scale. The binding energy associated with a peak is then used to establish its elemental identity and chemical state. The incoming x-rays penetrate microns into the surface...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ssde.t52310011
EISBN: 978-1-62708-286-0
... are presented in light of electrochemical potentials as opposed to purely chemical ones. Chapter 3 introduces the formal terms needed to describe electrode reaction kinetics. Chapter 4 describes the various forms of corrosion and how they are related to alloy metallurgy, chemistry, and structure. Chapter 5...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cfap.t69780259
EISBN: 978-1-62708-281-5
... ): (Eq 1) F / N = μ The friction force required to set a body in motion is typically greater than the force needed to sustain the motion. The respective coefficients of friction are the static coefficient of friction, μ s , and the kinetic (or dynamic) coefficient of friction, μ k...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 July 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.fec.t65940001
EISBN: 978-1-62708-302-7
.... The corrosion rate, however, is also strongly dependent on both η X and η M ; η X is a function of the kinetic mechanisms of the physical, chemical, and electrochemical processes occurring at the cathode surface; η M relates to kinetic processes at the anode surface. It is essential, therefore, to realize...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.pdub.t53420171
EISBN: 978-1-62708-310-2
..., and goes on to identify the most common superlattice structures and their corresponding alloy phases. It also discusses the factors that limit the formation of superlattices along with the kinetics of spinodal decomposition and its effect on microstructure development. antiphase boundaries...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2010
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.scm.t52870201
EISBN: 978-1-62708-314-0
... and thickness of the cured part. Like kinetics, viscosity is determined empirically for the particular resin system under consideration. Fig. 7.7 Typical viscosity curve for an epoxy resin Chemical composition affects the viscosity. The dramatic effect of the BF 3 catalyst is again evident...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 January 2023
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.itfdtktmse.t56060001
EISBN: 978-1-62708-440-6
... techniques. Physical vapor deposition (PVD) techniques include sputtering, e-beam evaporation, arc-PVD, and ion plating and are best suited for elements and compounds with moderate melting points or when a high-purity film is required. The remainder of the chapter covers chemical vapor deposition (CVD...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 November 2023
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ciktmse.9781627084604
EISBN: 978-1-62708-460-4
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.pdub.t53420015
EISBN: 978-1-62708-310-2
... atoms. It discusses the difference between interstitial and substitutional solid solutions and the factors that determine the type of solution that two metals are likely to form. It also addresses the development of intermediate phases, the role of free energy, transformation kinetics, liquid-to-solid...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.pdub.t53420041
EISBN: 978-1-62708-310-2
... Abstract This chapter explains how the principles of chemical thermodynamics are used in the construction and interpretation of phase diagrams. After a brief review of the laws of thermodynamics, it describes the concept of Gibbs free energy and its application to transformations that occur...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 January 2023
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.itfdtktmse.9781627084406
EISBN: 978-1-62708-440-6