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chemical kinetics

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Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ssde.t52310019
EISBN: 978-1-62708-286-0
...Abstract Abstract Corrosion involves chemical reactions in equilibrium that that are understood through principles of thermodynamics. In practice, the rate at which corrosion reactions occur is the most important consideration. This chapter deals with corrosion kinetics, which allows engineers...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2007
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.htcma.t52080005
EISBN: 978-1-62708-304-1
... Fig. 3.5 Different oxidation kinetics. Source: Ref 11 Abstract Abstract Many metallic components, such as retorts in heat treat furnaces, furnace heater tubes and coils in chemical and petrochemical plants, waterwalls and reheater tubes in boilers, and combustors and transition ducts...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2007
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.htcma.t52080067
EISBN: 978-1-62708-304-1
..., a nickel-base alloy containing about 1.3% Al, after exposure to 100% N 2 at 1090 °C (2000 °F) for 168 h. Source: Ref 50 Fig. 4.35 Nitridation kinetic data for alloy 214 (nickel-base alloy containing 4.5% Al) and alloy 230 (nickel-base alloy containing little aluminum) after exposure to 100% N...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 July 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.fec.t65940127
EISBN: 978-1-62708-302-7
... polarization curves for iron show a dependence on pH due to the influence of hydrogen ion concentration on the kinetic steps in the iron oxidation. Based on Ref 7 and 8 Fig. 4.17 Schematic examples of the effects of changes in the relative positions of anodic and cathodic polarization curves due...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cfap.t69780089
EISBN: 978-1-62708-281-5
... and Stoichiometry, Chemorheology of Thermosetting Polymers , May C.A. , Ed., ACS Symposium Series 227, American Chemical Society , 1983 , p 25 – 47 10.1021/bk-1982-0227.ch002 31. Hagnauer G.L. and Pearce P.J. , SEC Analysis of Epoxy Resin Cure Kinetics , Proc. ACS Symposium on SEC...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.pdub.t53420231
EISBN: 978-1-62708-310-2
...Abstract Abstract Gas-metal reactions can have a significant impact on metals and alloys, affecting their properties (during processing) and accelerating service failures, particularly in hot, corrosive environments. This chapter discusses the kinetics of gas-metal reactions and how...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cfap.t69780323
EISBN: 978-1-62708-281-5
...Abstract Abstract The susceptibility of plastics to environmental failure, when exposed to organic chemicals, limits their use in many applications. Environmental factors can be classified into two categories: chemical and physical effects. This article discusses the effects...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 July 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.fec.t65940087
EISBN: 978-1-62708-302-7
... current densities due to diffusion or other current limiting processes Fig. 3.5 Representation of the environment of metal ions in the metal and aqueous phases at the interface. Based on Ref 2 Fig. 3.6 Schematic representation of the chemical and electrical components...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cfap.t69780259
EISBN: 978-1-62708-281-5
... and Kinetic Coefficients of Friction of Plastic Film and Sheeting, ” D 1894-90, 1992 Annual Book of ASTM Standards , ASTM 20. “ Standard Test Method for Kinetic Coefficient of Friction of Plastic Solids, ” D 3028-90, 1992 Annual Book of ASTM Standards , ASTM 21. “ Standard Test Method...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2010
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.scm.t52870201
EISBN: 978-1-62708-314-0
... of a thermoset cure model that accounts for kinetics, viscosity, heat transfer, flow, voids, and residual stress. It then discusses each variable in detail, explaining how it affects the cure process, how it is measured, and how it can be expressed mathematically in the form of a simple model. The discussions...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cfap.t69780383
EISBN: 978-1-62708-281-5
...Evaluation techniques for chemical characterization of surfaces Table 1 Evaluation techniques for chemical characterization of surfaces Technique Information Analysis depth Analysis area Detection limit Ease of use EDS Elemental <5 μm <1 μm <1 at.% Easy WDS...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.pdub.t53420171
EISBN: 978-1-62708-310-2
... of cooling, and goes on to identify the most common superlattice structures and their corresponding alloy phases. It also discusses the factors that limit the formation of superlattices along with the kinetics of spinodal decomposition and its effect on microstructure development. antiphase boundaries...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 July 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.fec.t65940001
EISBN: 978-1-62708-302-7
... of the kinetic mechanisms of the physical, chemical, and electrochemical processes occurring at the cathode surface; η M relates to kinetic processes at the anode surface. It is essential, therefore, to realize that processes of corrosion, particularly the rate of corrosion, depend on both the anodic...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ssde.t52310011
EISBN: 978-1-62708-286-0
... an introduction to the fundamentals of electrochemical theory as it pertains to corrosion. Thermodynamics are presented in light of electrochemical potentials as opposed to purely chemical ones. Chapter 3 introduces the formal terms needed to describe electrode reaction kinetics. Chapter 4 describes...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.pdub.t53420015
EISBN: 978-1-62708-310-2
... and nickel atoms. It discusses the difference between interstitial and substitutional solid solutions and the factors that determine the type of solution that two metals are likely to form. It also addresses the development of intermediate phases, the role of free energy, transformation kinetics, liquid...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cpi2.t55030082
EISBN: 978-1-62708-282-2
... Chemical Company, 1987 Fig. 4 A 200 mm (8 in.) diameter gray iron pipe that failed because of graphitic corrosion. The pipe was part of a subterranean fire control system. The external surface of the pipe was covered with soil; the internal surface was covered with water. Severe graphitic...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 October 2011
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mnm2.t53060013
EISBN: 978-1-62708-261-7
..., and chemical composition appears on the horizontal axis. For a given temperature and chemical composition, the phase diagram shows what phase or phases are present in the alloy under conditions of thermal equilibrium. Thermal equilibrium means that the average molecular kinetic energy (i.e., temperature...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cfap.t69780115
EISBN: 978-1-62708-281-5
... thermoplastic and thermoset resins Table 2 Glass-transition and melting temperatures of selected thermoplastic and thermoset resins Chemical name Glass-transition temperature ( T g ) Melting temperature ( T m ) °C °F °C °F Hydrocarbon thermoplastics Polyethylene     HDPE −90...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cpi2.t55030062
EISBN: 978-1-62708-282-2
...Chemical compositions of wrought high-performance austenitic stainless steels Table 5 Chemical compositions of wrought high-performance austenitic stainless steels Name UNS number Composition, wt% C (a) N Cr Ni Mo Cu Other PREN (b) 20 Mo-6 N08026 0.03 0.10–0.16...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ssde.t52310057
EISBN: 978-1-62708-286-0
..., and Molybdenum Effect of Rare Earth Additions Effect of Chromium Summary Introduction Thermodynamics of Oxidation Transient Oxidation The Electrochemical Nature of Oxidation Kinetics and Oxidation Rates: Wagner’s Theory The Volatile Nature of Cr<sub>2</sub>O<sub>3</sub> Spalling...