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chemical kinetics

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Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.pdub.t53420231
EISBN: 978-1-62708-310-2
... Abstract Gas-metal reactions can have a significant impact on metals and alloys, affecting their properties (during processing) and accelerating service failures, particularly in hot, corrosive environments. This chapter discusses the kinetics of gas-metal reactions and how they are driven by...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2007
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.htcma.t52080067
EISBN: 978-1-62708-304-1
... 1090 °C (2000 °F). ammonia chemical kinetics nitridation thermodynamic potential In air or combustion atmospheres containing nitrogen, nitridation can take place under certain exposure conditions. In most cases, oxidation dominates the high-temperature corrosion...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 July 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.fec.t65940127
EISBN: 978-1-62708-302-7
... current densities, polarization characteristics, and physical variables such as anode-to-cathode area ratios and fluid velocity. It also discusses the effect of corrosion inhibitors, galvanic coupling, and external currents, making extensive use of polarization curves. chemical kinetics corrosion...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 July 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.fec.t65940087
EISBN: 978-1-62708-302-7
... Abstract This chapter lays the groundwork for understanding electrode kinetics associated with corrosion. It presents a simple but useful theory relating kinetics to the polarization behavior of half-cell reactions. The theory is based on the observation that electrode potentials vary as a...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 July 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.fec.t65940023
EISBN: 978-1-62708-302-7
... Abstract This chapter provides a thorough introduction to the electrochemical thermodynamics that govern electrode reactions associated with corrosion. It begins with a review of the thermodynamic criteria for the stability of chemical reactions based on Gibbs free energy and explains how...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 July 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.fec.t65940001
EISBN: 978-1-62708-302-7
... of standard equilibrium half-cell potentials, these tables are useful for establishing whether corrosion can occur. The corrosion rate, however, is also strongly dependent on both η X and η M ; η X is a function of the kinetic mechanisms of the physical, chemical, and electrochemical processes...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 July 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.fec.t65940183
EISBN: 978-1-62708-302-7
... kinetic (reaction rate) factors on the composition and structure of the film. The experimental determination of the characteristics of the film is difficult because the film forms on the metal when in contact with a solution, and changes may occur on removal for examination by chemical, optical, x-ray, or...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 July 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.fec.t65940233
EISBN: 978-1-62708-302-7
... Table 6.1 , corrosion due to hydrogen evolution will not occur since the metal half-cell potentials are above potentials for hydrogen evolution. Also, the kinetics of the reduction of any dissolved oxygen are sufficiently slow that the potential is shifted negligibly from that of the metal half cell...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 July 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.fec.t65940271
EISBN: 978-1-62708-302-7
... or chemical damage to the passive surface. Pit propagation will not occur if conditions lead to immediate repassivation of the local region. Pitting is usually preceded by an induction time to activate the local region following which the pit propagates as an occluded cell. The form of corrosion...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ssde.t52310019
EISBN: 978-1-62708-286-0
... Abstract Corrosion involves chemical reactions in equilibrium that that are understood through principles of thermodynamics. In practice, the rate at which corrosion reactions occur is the most important consideration. This chapter deals with corrosion kinetics, which allows engineers to to...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cfap.t69780089
EISBN: 978-1-62708-281-5
.... Processing parameters are as important as the initial chemical composition of the resin being cured. Processes such as rate, kinetics, and cessation of chemical reactions, as well as flow characteristics, are of vital significance and have been discussed in the literature ( Ref 69 , 90 – 93...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cfap.t69780323
EISBN: 978-1-62708-281-5
... Abstract The susceptibility of plastics to environmental failure, when exposed to organic chemicals, limits their use in many applications. Environmental factors can be classified into two categories: chemical and physical effects. This article discusses the effects of these environmental...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 April 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.imub.t53720139
EISBN: 978-1-62708-305-8
... Abstract The overall chemical composition of metals and alloys is most commonly determined by x-ray fluorescence (XRF) and optical emission spectroscopy (OES). High-temperature combustion and inert gas fusion methods are typically used to analyze dissolved gases (oxygen, nitrogen, and hydrogen...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cfap.t69780146
EISBN: 978-1-62708-281-5
... strain rate. All of these conditions may need to be considered in preventing or determining cause of failure in a polymeric material. Chemical reaction kinetics of polymers are similar to those of small molecules, in spite of the enhanced resistance of...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2007
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.htcma.t52080005
EISBN: 978-1-62708-304-1
... Abstract Many metallic components, such as retorts in heat treat furnaces, furnace heater tubes and coils in chemical and petrochemical plants, waterwalls and reheater tubes in boilers, and combustors and transition ducts in gas turbines, are subject to oxidation. This chapter explains how...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.pdub.t53420171
EISBN: 978-1-62708-310-2
... goes on to identify the most common superlattice structures and their corresponding alloy phases. It also discusses the factors that limit the formation of superlattices along with the kinetics of spinodal decomposition and its effect on microstructure development. antiphase boundaries...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.pdub.t53420015
EISBN: 978-1-62708-310-2
... atoms. It discusses the difference between interstitial and substitutional solid solutions and the factors that determine the type of solution that two metals are likely to form. It also addresses the development of intermediate phases, the role of free energy, transformation kinetics, liquid-to-solid...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2010
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.scm.t52870201
EISBN: 978-1-62708-314-0
... resin system kinetics. The effect of catalyst additions can be seen in the dynamic differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) curves for three different epoxy resins shown in Fig. 7.4 . The chemical compositions of all three are the same except for the amount of boron trifluoride (BF 3 ) catalyst. The...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.secwr.t68350043
EISBN: 978-1-62708-315-7
... Abstract This chapter discusses the basic principles of friction and the factors that must be considered when determining its effect on moving bodies in contact. It provides an extensive amount of friction data, including static and kinetic friction coefficients for numerous combinations of...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cfap.t69780204
EISBN: 978-1-62708-281-5
... initiation, the kinetics of craze growth, and the effect of crazing on toughness of the plastic. In addition, the article provides information on various tests to determine stress-to-craze value, strain-to-craze value, and fracture toughness of the plastic. ductile-brittle transitions crazing...