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chemical equilibrium

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Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 October 2011
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mnm2.t53060013
EISBN: 978-1-62708-261-7
... of equilibrium phase diagrams, the role of enthalpy and Gibb’s free energy in chemical reactions, and a method for determining phase compositions along the solidus and liquidus lines. atomic diffusion body-centered cubic systems crystal defects equilibrium phase diagram face-centered cubic systems...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2016
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ascaam.t59190035
EISBN: 978-1-62708-296-9
... includes tabular information and data on the intermetallic phases in the aluminum corner of the equilibrium phase diagram, the characteristics of the crystal lattice of intermetallic phases, the chemical composition of the alloy intermetallic phases, and equilibrium reactions in the alloy system...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.pdub.t53420041
EISBN: 978-1-62708-310-2
... energies and chemical potentials, and shows how the equilibrium state of an alloy can be obtained from free-energy curves. binary solid solutions chemical potential Gibbs free energy interatomic bonds phase diagrams single-component systems thermodynamics THERMODYNAMICS is a branch...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 July 2009
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.bcp.t52230459
EISBN: 978-1-62708-298-3
... Abstract This chapter covers the corrosion behavior of beryllium in aqueous environments. It describes the chemical reactions that drive the corrosion process, the conditions required for equilibrium, and the factors that affect corrosion resistance. It discusses the stability of the native...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ts5.t65900045
EISBN: 978-1-62708-358-4
... provides general considerations of phases and phase diagrams and the determination of equilibrium phase diagrams. It describes the formation of martensite, characteristics of alloy carbides, and the design of tool steels. alloy carbides alloying elements chemical composition crystal structure...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ssde.t52310019
EISBN: 978-1-62708-286-0
... Abstract Corrosion involves chemical reactions in equilibrium that that are understood through principles of thermodynamics. In practice, the rate at which corrosion reactions occur is the most important consideration. This chapter deals with corrosion kinetics, which allows engineers...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.pdub.t53420231
EISBN: 978-1-62708-310-2
... diagram GAS-METAL SYSTEMS are important both during metallic processing and during exposure when placed in service, particularly in the evaluation of high-temperature oxidation and hot-gas corrosion. Engineering alloys react chemically when exposed to air or other more aggressive gases. Whether...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.pdub.t53420001
EISBN: 978-1-62708-310-2
... mutual equilibrium, it is necessary that each be internally in a homogeneous state. In general, this means that each phase must be in the lowest free energy state possible under the restrictions imposed by its environment. Thus, the chemical composition must be identical everywhere within the phase...
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Published: 01 August 2018
Fig. 16.38 Molar fraction of phases in equilibrium as a function of temperature for an ASTM A890/A890M Grade 1C duplex stainless steel. Solubilization annealing is normally performed above 1000 °C (1830 °F). Below approximately 950 °C (1740 °F) ferrite decomposes into austenite and sigma (σ More
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Published: 01 August 2018
Fig. 16.32 Molar fraction of phases in equilibrium as a function of temperature for an ASTM A890/A890M, Grade 6A duplex stainless steel. Solubilization annealing is usually performed around 1100 °C (2010 °F). Below approximately 1000 °C (1830 °F), ferrite decomposes in austenite and sigma (σ More
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Published: 01 December 1996
Fig. 6-5 Schematic illustration of the changes in chemical composition of crystals during equilibrium solidification. See text for details. (From same source as in Fig. 6-2 ) More
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Published: 01 December 1996
Fig. 6-6 Schematic illustration of the changes in chemical composition of a crystal during non-equilibrium solidification. See text for details. (From same source as in Fig. 6-2 ) More
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Published: 01 October 2011
Fig. 14.8 Two sequences for the formation of a two-phase mixture by diffusion processes. (a) Classical nucleation and growth. (b) Spinodal decomposition. Nominal chemical concentration, X 0 , is between two different equilibrium concentrations, X e * and X e **. More
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Published: 01 August 2018
Fig. 13.3 (a) During treatment in the critical region of dual-phase and multiphase steels, carbon enriched austenite is formed (figure shows the equilibrium condition for a Fe-C alloy). (b) On cooling, austenite transforms partially to martensite. Depending on its chemical composition, some More
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 July 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.fec.t65940023
EISBN: 978-1-62708-302-7
... important concept for the present discussion. Just as the condition for chemical equilibrium is Δg = 0, the condition for electrochemical equilibrium is Δg el = 0. This condition is now applied to the transfer of ions across the metal/electrolyte interface. For convenience, the symbols g M 0 and ϕ M...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.msisep.t59220101
EISBN: 978-1-62708-259-4
... Abstract This chapter describes the phases and constituents present in iron-carbon steels in near-equilibrium conditions. It explains how to use phase diagrams to predict and manage the development of ferrite, austenite, cementite, and pearlite through controlled cooling. It discusses...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 July 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.fec.t65940001
EISBN: 978-1-62708-302-7
... Abstract This chapter familiarizes readers with the basic concepts of corrosion, discussing chemical reactions, ion transfer mechanisms, electrochemical processes and variables, and the formation of solid corrosion products. It presents a simple but effective teaching tool, the elementary...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.pdub.t53420015
EISBN: 978-1-62708-310-2
... Abstract This chapter describes the physical characteristics, properties, and behaviors of solid solutions under equilibrium conditions. It begins with a review of a single-component pure metal system and its unary phase diagram. It then examines the solid solution formed by copper and nickel...
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Published: 01 August 2018
Fig. 14.16 Left: schematic Fe-C phase diagram. Right: CCT curve corresponding to the steel with composition C 1 indicated in the diagram in the left. The dashed region in the equilibrium phase diagram indicates the conditions of temperature and chemical composition in which austenite would More
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.tm.t52320091
EISBN: 978-1-62708-357-7
... to hold for any dm A and dm B , Eq 4.2 must be satisfied. Therefore, Eq 4.2 is the condition of two-phase equilibrium. Chemical potentials μ A α and μ B α are shown as intersections of the tangent to the free-energy curve of α phase and the A axis...