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Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cfap.t69780146
EISBN: 978-1-62708-281-5
..., photo-oxidative degradation, environmental corrosion, and chemical corrosion of polymers. It also includes some of the techniques used to detect changes in structure during polymer exposure to hostile environments. In addition, the article describes the effects of environment on polymer performance...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cpi2.t55030180
EISBN: 978-1-62708-282-2
... but is based on a different electrochemical principle. Anodic protection is based on the phenomenon of passivity. A limited number of metals in a limited number of chemical environments have the property of passivity. The electrochemical nature of achieving passivity requires that the potential of the metal...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cfap.t69780323
EISBN: 978-1-62708-281-5
... are examined in a number of reviews on the subject ( Ref 1 – 6 ). Environmental factors can be classified into two categories: chemical and physical effects. Chemical attack occurs when chemical reactions result from the interaction between the environment and polymer molecules. This type of interaction...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cub.t66910331
EISBN: 978-1-62708-250-1
... of the corrosive environment and equipment operating conditions. This review requires input from knowledgeable process engineers. Precise definition of the chemical environment, including the presence of trace compounds, is vital. For example, the nickel-molybdenum alloy Hastelloy B-2 (UNS N10665) is highly...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 October 2011
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mnm2.t53060369
EISBN: 978-1-62708-261-7
... Abstract Corrosion can be defined as a chemical or electrochemical reaction between a material and its environment that causes the material and its properties to degrade. In most cases, it refers to the electrochemical oxidation of metals accompanied by the production of oxides or salts...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cpi2.t55030165
EISBN: 978-1-62708-282-2
... of severe service environments. An example of improved corrosion resistance by modifying the chemical composition is the alloying of steels. Carbon and low-alloy steels are less costly but also less corrosion-resistant. At the higher end of the alloying scale are the more costly and significantly more...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cpi2.t55030215
EISBN: 978-1-62708-282-2
... or otherwise) that occur during service. Input from knowledgeable process engineers is recommended. Precise definition of the chemical environment, including the presence of trace compounds, is vital. For example, the nickel-molybdenum alloy B-2 (UNS N10665) is highly resistant to hydrochloric acid (HCl...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ssde.t52310257
EISBN: 978-1-62708-286-0
... Abstract This chapter focuses on the applications of stainless steels in chemical and process industry, covering what data are necessary and how they can be found. It begins with an overview of single- and dual-environment systems and the corrosion issues they face. This is followed...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cub.t66910237
EISBN: 978-1-62708-250-1
... Abstract All materials are susceptible to corrosion or some form of environmental degradation. Although no single material is suitable for all applications, usually there are a variety of materials that will perform satisfactorily in a given environment. The intent of this chapter is to review...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2017
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.sccmpe2.t55090341
EISBN: 978-1-62708-266-2
... produce immediate failure. It describes crack growth mechanisms, explains how to measure crack growth rates and predict time to failure, and provides crack growth data for a number of materials and environments. ceramics environmentally enhanced crack growth glass stress-corrosion cracking...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cub.t66910363
EISBN: 978-1-62708-250-1
... important properties. Coatings and linings may protect substrates by three basic mechanisms: Barrier protection Chemical inhibition Galvanic (sacrificial) protection Barrier protection is achieved when coatings completely isolate the substrate from the environment. Chemical inhibition...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 July 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.fec.t65940001
EISBN: 978-1-62708-302-7
... their formation can be a major factor in controlling corrosion. aqueous corrosion chemical reactions electrochemical corrosion Definition and Examples of Corrosion The deterioration of materials due to reactions with their environments is the currently accepted broad definition of corrosion. From...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cub.t66910001
EISBN: 978-1-62708-250-1
... Abstract Corrosion can be defined as a chemical or electrochemical reaction between a material, usually a metal, and its environment that produces a deterioration of the material and its properties. This chapter describes the effects and economic impact of corrosion in major industrial plants...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2017
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.sccmpe2.t55090419
EISBN: 978-1-62708-266-2
... shortly after failure occurs, with minimal disturbance to the physical state of the component. Attention must also be given to the chemical environments to which the component was exposed during manufacturing, shipment, storage, and service, particularly to such factors as chemical concentration...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cub.t66910475
EISBN: 978-1-62708-250-1
... Abstract This chapter discusses the techniques applicable to the diagnosis of corrosion failures, including visual and microscopic examination of corroded surfaces and microstructure; chemical analysis of the metal, corrosion products, and bulk environment; nondestructive evaluation methods...
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Published: 01 January 2000
, and fumes released from chemical plants and refineries. The most aggressive conditions are often found in places of intense industrial activity where the coating is frequently wetted by rain, snow, and other forms of condensation. In these areas, sulfur compounds can combine with atmospheric moisture More
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ffub.t53610327
EISBN: 978-1-62708-303-4
... electrical and thermal insulators. In addition, due to the stability of their strong bonds, they normally have high melting temperatures and excellent chemical stability in many hostile environments. However, ceramics are inherently hard and brittle materials that, when loaded in tension, have almost...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.secwr.t68350011
EISBN: 978-1-62708-315-7
... of potential. Anodic and cathodic areas will develop, and a corrosion cell, called a concentration cell, will form. Chemicals In an acid environment, even without the presence of oxygen, the metal at the anode is attacked at a rapid rate. At the cathode, atomic hydrogen is released continuously...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cpi2.t55030039
EISBN: 978-1-62708-282-2
... degradation. Engineering structures as diverse as lap joints in aircraft, flanged pipes in chemical-processing plants, metal surfaces under initially protective coatings, and environmentally assisted cracks in metallic materials all have an occluded solution. This similitude was originally pointed out...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cub.t66910407
EISBN: 978-1-62708-250-1
... that have been used for cathodes in anodic protection systems, as well as the chemical environments in which they were used, include the following: The electrode size is chosen to conform to the geometry of the vessel and to provide as large a surface area as possible. The location of the cathode...