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Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2007
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.smnm.t52140215
EISBN: 978-1-62708-264-8
... Abstract This appendix contains the periodic table of the elements. chemical elements periodic table ...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2007
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.smnm.t52140055
EISBN: 978-1-62708-264-8
... Abstract Steels contain a wide range of elements, including alloys as well as residual processing impurities. This chapter describes the chemical composition of low-alloy AISI steels, which are classified based on the amounts of chromium, molybdenum, and nickel they contain. It explains why...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ems.t53730001
EISBN: 978-1-62708-283-9
... chloride and includes a list of structurally similar compounds. amorphous materials chemical bonding chemical elements crystal structures MATERIALS are so important to civilization that the terms stone age, bronze age , and iron age have been used to describe periods of history. Perhaps...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ems.t53730159
EISBN: 978-1-62708-283-9
... Abstract This appendix contains a table listing the symbol, atomic number, atomic weight, melting temperature, density, atomic radius, and crystal structure of various elements. chemical elements atomic number atomic weight density atomic radius ...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2017
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.sccmpe2.t55090191
EISBN: 978-1-62708-266-2
... Abstract Irradiation-assisted stress-corrosion cracking (IASCC) has been a topic of engineering interest since it was first reported in the 1960s, having been observed in stainless steel cladding on light water reactor fuel elements. This chapter summarizes the results of decades...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.emea.t52240041
EISBN: 978-1-62708-251-8
... to the dislocations and again form atmospheres that pin dislocation movement. alloying elements yield strength pure metals substitutional solid solutions interstitial solid solutions relative size factor chemical affinity factor relative valency factor lattice type factor strain aging low-carbon...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.pht2.t51440175
EISBN: 978-1-62708-262-4
... Abstract This chapter discusses the processes involved in heat treating of stainless steels, providing information on the classification, chemical compositions, and corrosion resistance of stainless steels and the effect of specific elements on the characteristics of iron-base alloys. Five...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.msisep.t59220001
EISBN: 978-1-62708-259-4
... Besides carbon, which is not always a desirable alloying element, many chemical elements may be present in a steel. Elements not intentionally added are called residuals . Elements added to steel to affect its behavior are usually called alloying elements . However, many elements that are not classified...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.spsp2.t54410001
EISBN: 978-1-62708-265-5
... chapters. Steels are defined primarily by chemical composition, namely, that they are alloys composed of iron and other elements. For the structural and heat treatable steels of major interest in this book, carbon is an essential alloying element; thus steel may be defined as an alloy of iron...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2007
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.smnm.t52140009
EISBN: 978-1-62708-264-8
... are the chemical element symbols for iron and carbon, and X can be thought of as third-element additions and impurities. In the United States, most steels are classified by a code developed by the American Iron and Steel Institute (AISI). It is customary to partition steel compositions into two categories: plain...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.aub.t61170003
EISBN: 978-1-62708-297-6
... are seldom used in commercial applications in their pure (unalloyed) condition. Instead, one or more chemical element is normally alloyed with the base metal to alter its characteristics to make it easier to fabricate and/or perform better in the application. Although in the broad sense, alloying covers...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.spsp2.t54410163
EISBN: 978-1-62708-265-5
..., and martensite have tacitly assumed that the steel sections in which these microstructures form are uniform in composition, containing only the chemical elements incorporated into a steel grade by design. This assumption does not include two very important structural features introduced into all finished steel...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.emea.t52240003
EISBN: 978-1-62708-251-8
... Selected References • Askeland D.R. , The Science and Engineering of Materials , 2nd ed. , PWS-Kent Publishing Co. , 1989 • Baker H. , The Chemical Elements , Metals Handbook Desk Edition , 2nd ed. , ASM International , 1998 • Baker H. , Introduction to Alloy...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.aacppa.t51140061
EISBN: 978-1-62708-335-5
... records and time-temperature charts should be consulted to confirm that specified practices were observed. The chemical composition of alloys of aluminum is determined by light emission spectroscopy. Quantometers simplify and standardize chemical element concentrations. In some cases, wet chemistry...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.pdub.t53420015
EISBN: 978-1-62708-310-2
... important. When the electrochemical properties of the alloying element metals are similar, normal substitutional solid solutions will form during solidification. However, when the metals have widely divergent electrochemical properties, they are more likely to form a chemical compound, often with some...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cub.t66910001
EISBN: 978-1-62708-250-1
... is a natural process. Just like water flows to the lowest level, all natural processes tend toward the lowest possible energy states. Thus, for example, iron and steel have a natural tendency to combine with other chemical elements to return to their lowest energy states. In order to return to lower energy...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cfap.t69780383
EISBN: 978-1-62708-281-5
... Evaluation techniques for chemical characterization of surfaces Technique Information Analysis depth Analysis area Detection limit Ease of use EDS Elemental <5 μm <1 μm <1 at.% Easy WDS Elemental <5 μm >1 μm <0.1 at.% Easy AES Elemental <5 nm >100 nm...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mgppis.t60400149
EISBN: 978-1-62708-258-7
... that have energies and wavelengths that are uniquely characteristic of the elements contained within the sample. These x-rays can be collected within the microscope to provide information about the chemical composition of the constituents in the sample. The primary electrons also interact to generate other...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.pdub.t53420429
EISBN: 978-1-62708-310-2
... as any departure from a uniform distribution of the chemical elements in the alloy. Because of the way in which alloys partition on freezing, it follows that all castings are segregated to different degrees. Alloys can exhibit several types of segregation, and more than one type can be present in any...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.msisep.t59220085
EISBN: 978-1-62708-259-4
... it be possible to collect and analyze the x-rays emitted by the sample, either by their energy or by wavelength, it should also be possible to identify the chemical elements present in the sample and even perform chemical analysis of points or regions of the sample. Two methods are widely used to analyze...