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chemical effects

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Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cfap.t69780146
EISBN: 978-1-62708-281-5
..., photo-oxidative degradation, environmental corrosion, and chemical corrosion of polymers. It also includes some of the techniques used to detect changes in structure during polymer exposure to hostile environments. In addition, the article describes the effects of environment on polymer performance...
Image
Published: 01 August 2018
Fig. 1.4 Schematic presentation of the main effects and functions of chemical elements added to steel. In parentheses, some specific examples of each function are presented. Evidently, some elements have more than one function in the alloy design of a given steel. More
Image
Published: 01 January 2015
Fig. 13.14 Effect of multistep chemical milling of titanium. A 3 is approximately equal to R 3 ; A 2 and A 1 are less than R 2 and R 1 , respectively, depending on their depths of cut. Overhang is diminished as depth of cut becomes shallower. More
Image
Published: 01 August 1999
Fig. 9 Effect of pH on corrosion of 1100-H14 alloy by various chemical solutions. Observe the minimal corrosion in the pH range of 4.0 to 9.0. The low corrosion rates in acetic acid, nitric acid, and ammonium hydroxide demonstrate that the nature of the individual ions in solution is more More
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.spsp2.t54410163
EISBN: 978-1-62708-265-5
... Inclusions and chemical segregation are factors in many process-induced failures involving steel parts. Inclusions are nonmetallic compounds introduced during production; segregation is a type of chemical partitioning that occurs during solidification. This chapter discusses the origins...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cfap.t69780323
EISBN: 978-1-62708-281-5
... Abstract The susceptibility of plastics to environmental failure, when exposed to organic chemicals, limits their use in many applications. Environmental factors can be classified into two categories: chemical and physical effects. This article discusses the effects of these environmental...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.pdub.t53420041
EISBN: 978-1-62708-310-2
... in single-component and binary solid solutions. It then examines the relationship between the free energy of a solution and the chemical potentials of the individual components. It also explains how to account for the heat of mixing using quasi-chemical models, discusses the effect of interatomic bond...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2016
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ascaam.t59190147
EISBN: 978-1-62708-296-9
...., mixture of chemical compounds, electrolyte, temperature). An effect is visible as a local change of the image contrast (gray or color). The reagents for chemical selective etching are classified in two groups: reagents that reveal discontinuity and differentiation in the crystal orientation...
Image
Published: 01 August 2018
Fig. 9.49 Schematic representation of the effect of austenitization time and temperature on the austenitic grain size and the effect on the structure in a Fe-C steel, air-cooled. The scheme supposes that austenite is homogeneous in grain size and chemical composition. More
Image
Published: 31 December 2020
Fig. 12 Schematic representation of the effect of austenitization time and temperature on the austenitic grain size and the effect on the structure in a Fe-C steel, air cooled. The scheme supposes that austenite is homogeneous in grain size and chemical composition. Source: Ref 14 More
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cfap.t69780089
EISBN: 978-1-62708-281-5
..., other polymer systems are discussed where appropriate. Chemical Composition Characterization Thermoset systems consist of one or more resins and are cured using various curing agents and catalysts. The chemical structure, functionality, and composition of these components have a broad effect...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.msisep.t59220001
EISBN: 978-1-62708-259-4
... decades of the 20th century, the accumulated knowledge of the relations between chemical composition, structures, properties, and performance, together with the effect of processing on these features, has reached a level that allows continuous scientific development of new alloys and improvement...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ttg2.t61120085
EISBN: 978-1-62708-269-3
... or chemically by immersion in molten salt baths. The metallurgical and chemical properties of titanium create a number of very special cleaning problems. These include: Affinity of titanium to common gases Galvanic effects caused by discontinuities in scaled surfaces Metallurgical restrictions...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 July 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.fec.t65940023
EISBN: 978-1-62708-302-7
... Abstract This chapter provides a thorough introduction to the electrochemical thermodynamics that govern electrode reactions associated with corrosion. It begins with a review of the thermodynamic criteria for the stability of chemical reactions based on Gibbs free energy and explains how...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1996
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.phtpclas.t64560043
EISBN: 978-1-62708-353-9
... describes the effect of boron on the hardenability of steels. austenite grain size boron chemical composition critical diameter hardenability Jominy end-quench test steel Introduction In heat treating steels for hardening, the part is usually continuously cooled from austenite to develop...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 October 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.lmub.t53550325
EISBN: 978-1-62708-307-2
... affect impact and tensile strength, shrinkage, thermal expansion, and thermal conductivity. It examines the relationship between tensile modulus and temperature, provides thermal property data for selected plastics, and discusses the effect of chemical exposure, operating temperature, and residual stress...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cub.t66910407
EISBN: 978-1-62708-250-1
... of the chemical reactions occurring at the surface of the protected structure, and the effects of cathodic protection on coatings. corrosion control cathodic protection anodic protection sacrificial cathodic protection systems impressed-current cathodic protection systems stray currents coatings...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2016
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ascaam.t59190089
EISBN: 978-1-62708-296-9
... eutectics and evolution of the intermetallic phase precipitates as influenced by solidification rate, pressure casting, heat treatment, and liquid alloy chemical modification Table 3.19 Morphological effects in the interdendritic eutectics and evolution of the intermetallic phase precipitates...
Image
Published: 01 August 2018
diameter, particularly with signals other than secondary electrons. Besides having an effect on image resolution, the effective sampled volume influences the results of chemical analysis made using the x-rays emitted by the sample. More
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.secwr.t68350001
EISBN: 978-1-62708-315-7
... to cause aggressive damage in a number of industries, such as mining, mineral processing, chemical processing, pulp and paper production, and energy production. Corrosion and wear processes involve many mechanisms, the combined actions of which lead to the mutual reinforcement of their effectiveness...