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chemical composition

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Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 December 2020
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.phtbp.t59310233
EISBN: 978-1-62708-326-3
... stainless steels are often subjected to homogenization, to eliminate segregation and promote uniformity of their chemical composition and microstructure. As-cast stainless steels may exhibit considerable segregation and dendritic microstructure, particularly in heavy sections. Homogenizing heat treatments...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 December 2020
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.phtbp.t59310095
EISBN: 978-1-62708-326-3
... content (in hundredths of a percent) is to be inserted Carbon and low-alloy steels in the AISI-SAE designation system are sold to definite chemical limits, and each grade of plain carbon steel is assigned a code number that specifies its chemical composition. However, some steels have less...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 April 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.imub.t53720139
EISBN: 978-1-62708-305-8
... Abstract The overall chemical composition of metals and alloys is most commonly determined by x-ray fluorescence (XRF) and optical emission spectroscopy (OES). High-temperature combustion and inert gas fusion methods are typically used to analyze dissolved gases (oxygen, nitrogen, and hydrogen...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 October 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.lmub.t53550033
EISBN: 978-1-62708-307-2
... hardened by a combination of solid-solution strengthening ( Fig. 2.2 ) and cold working ( Fig. 2.3 ). The chemical compositions of a number of wrought non-heat-treatable alloys are shown in Table 2.8 , and representative mechanical properties are given in Table 2.9 . Fig. 2.2 Solid-solution...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2010
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.scm.t52870537
EISBN: 978-1-62708-314-0
.... aluminum matrix composites chemical composition continuous metal matrix composites discontinuous metal matrix composites fiber metal laminates liquid metal infiltration slurry casting stir casting titanium matrix composites METAL MATRIX COMPOSITES (MMCs) offer a number of advantages compared...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ssde.t52310269
EISBN: 978-1-62708-286-0
... Abstract This appendix contains tables listing the composition of austenitic, ferrite, martensitic, precipitation-hardenable, and duplex stainless steels and of Alloy Casting Institute heat- and corrosion-resisting casting alloys. chemical composition austenitic stainless steel duplex...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 September 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.fahtsc.t51130311
EISBN: 978-1-62708-284-6
... Abstract This chapter focuses on the failure aspects of tool steels. The discussion covers the classification, chemical composition, main characteristics, and several failures of tool steels and their relation to heat treatment. The tool steels covered are hot work, cold work, plastic mold, and...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2007
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.smnm.t52140055
EISBN: 978-1-62708-264-8
... Abstract Steels contain a wide range of elements, including alloys as well as residual processing impurities. This chapter describes the chemical composition of low-alloy AISI steels, which are classified based on the amounts of chromium, molybdenum, and nickel they contain. It explains why...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2007
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.smnm.t52140009
EISBN: 978-1-62708-264-8
... (hypoeutectoid) and high-carbon (hypereutectoid) steels are made, how they are classified, and how they compare. It also describes eutectoid steels which, at 0.77 wt% C, form a separate class noted for its microstructure. chemical composition eutectoid steel iron-carbon phase diagram microstructure...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2007
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.smnm.t52140001
EISBN: 978-1-62708-264-8
.... chemical composition crystal structure phase transformation pure iron STEELS ARE OVER 95% Fe, so a good starting point for understanding steel is to study the nature of solid iron. Consider the following experiment. A bar of pure iron (e.g., 25 mm, or 1 in., in diameter) is sectioned to form a thin...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2007
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.smnm.t52140209
EISBN: 978-1-62708-264-8
... Abstract This appendix discusses the general characteristics, composition, phase transformations, and properties of commercial stainless steels used for making high-quality knives. chemical composition knives phase transformation Sandvik 12C27 stainless steel Uddeholm AEB-L...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2007
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.smnm.t52140175
EISBN: 978-1-62708-264-8
.... cast iron chemical composition fracture behavior microstructure solidification CAST IRONS DIFFER from high-carbon steels in several aspects, including the following two: They cannot be converted to 100% austenite during heat treatment. The other phase present in the austenite is...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2007
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.smnm.t52140133
EISBN: 978-1-62708-264-8
... optimization of martensitic stainless steels for cutlery applications. chemical composition corrosion resistance cutlery applications heat treatment stainless steel A BIG PROBLEM WITH STEELS is that they are easily corroded when exposed to damp conditions, particularly if a salty or acidic...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2007
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.smnm.t52140005
EISBN: 978-1-62708-264-8
... salt, the NaCl molecules decompose following the reaction NaCl ⇒ Na + + Cl − , where the symbol Na + refers to a positively charged sodium atom, called an ion, and the symbol Cl − refers to a negatively charged chlorine atom. The solid salt cannot be seen because the chemical bonds that held the...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2007
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.smnm.t52140083
EISBN: 978-1-62708-264-8
... makes the Jominy test useful is that cooling rates of low-alloy AISI steels with different chemical compositions as well as with different grain sizes are essentially the same. This is because the alloying element additions do not change the thermal conductivity significantly in these steels, nor does...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2007
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.smnm.t52140021
EISBN: 978-1-62708-264-8
... 740 °C (1360 °F), second cooled to 727 °C (1340 °F, the A 1 temperature), and third cooled to room temperature. The previous analysis ( Fig. 3.4 ) showed that the austenite present at 760 °C (1400 °F) has a carbon composition of N , which is also shown in Fig. 4.4 . After the first cooling from 760...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2007
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.smnm.t52140165
EISBN: 978-1-62708-264-8
... that particles of the sulfide compound form. Depending on the chemical composition of the steel, the particles form from the liquid as either solid particles or immiscible liquid droplets that freeze to solid at temperatures lower than the temperature at the base of the dendrite arrays. Hence, all of...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2007
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.smnm.t52140063
EISBN: 978-1-62708-264-8
... , with increasing time, more carbon diffuses into the interior. In the carbon-iron case, the two basic requirements for diffusion are also met: (1) The carbon atoms have a high mobility (they rapidly jump back and forth), and (2) the carbon atoms move from high-carbon compositions on the left to low...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2007
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.smnm.t52140189
EISBN: 978-1-62708-264-8
... system, they are alpha iron + Fe 4 N, which is usually labeled γ′. Both Fe 3 C and Fe 4 N are chemical compounds, but Fe 4 N differs from Fe 3 C in that its composition is not fixed. Whereas the composition of Fe 3 C is limited to its chemical formula, as shown at 450 °C in Fig. 17.13 , the composition...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2007
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.smnm.t52140099
EISBN: 978-1-62708-264-8
...), the percent RA of the 5160 is 52 compared to 43 for the 1060 steel. Table 10.2 Chemical composition of 1060 and 5160 steels Steel %C %Mn Alloying element 1060 0.6 0.75 None 5160 0.6 0.88 0.8% Cr Fig. 10.9 Rockwell C hardness decreases with increasing reduction...