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chemical analysis

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Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 April 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.imub.t53720139
EISBN: 978-1-62708-305-8
...) and, in some cases, carbon and sulfur in metals. This chapter discusses the operating principles of XRF, OES, combustion and inert gas fusion analysis, surface analysis, and scanning auger microprobe analysis. The details of equipment set-up used for chemical composition analysis as well as the...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 April 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.imub.t53720001
EISBN: 978-1-62708-305-8
... Abstract This chapter provides an overview of the various inspection methods used with metals and alloys, namely visual inspection, coordinate measuring machines, machine vision, hardness testing, tensile testing, chemical analysis, metallography, and nondestructive testing. The nondestructive...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 April 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.imub.t53720293
EISBN: 978-1-62708-305-8
... involves checking for shape and dimensions, coupled with aided and unaided visual inspection for external discontinuities and surface quality. Chemical analyses and tests for mechanical properties are supplemented by various forms of nondestructive inspection, including leak testing and proof loading, all...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 April 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.imub.t53720161
EISBN: 978-1-62708-305-8
... restricted to inspecting areas of interest or systematically chosen test locations based on sampling convenience. In failure analysis, specimens are usually removed to study the origin of the failure, to examine highly stressed areas, and to examine secondary cracks. All sectioning processes produce...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 April 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.imub.t53720183
EISBN: 978-1-62708-305-8
... discontinuities that are open to the surface of solid, essentially nonporous materials. Indications of flaws can be found regardless of the size, configuration, internal structure, and chemical composition of the workpiece being inspected, as well as flaw orientation. Liquid penetrants can seep into (and be drawn...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 April 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.imub.t53720345
EISBN: 978-1-62708-305-8
... application is the detection and evaluation of flaws. Sorting is often an auxiliary application employed for grade or size verification and can be based on chemical composition, dimensions, physical and mechanical properties, or other significant variables. A difficulty encountered in sorting arises when...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2009
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.sfa.t52780093
EISBN: 978-1-62708-268-6
... environmental approaches, and chemical and composition analysis for assessing material characteristics. This chapter is a detailed account of the working principle and the steps involved in these techniques and technologies. analytical equipment chemical analysis composition analysis dimensional...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 July 2009
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.bcp.t52230093
EISBN: 978-1-62708-298-3
... dissolve beryllium and cause the evolution of hydrogen. The metal is not attacked by cold nitric acid up to 6 M concentration. It is reported in the literature that beryllium is dissolved by dilute nitric acid [ Everest 1973 ]. When dissolving beryllium metal samples in nitric acid for chemical analysis...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 July 2009
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.bcp.t52230107
EISBN: 978-1-62708-298-3
... Abstract This chapter describes the procedures and processes used to chemically analyze beryllium samples. It discusses gravimetric, volumetric, colorimetric, and fluorometric techniques, radiochemical separation and assay, and the use of emission spectrometry and polarographic methods...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 July 2009
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.bcp.t52230209
EISBN: 978-1-62708-298-3
... double-cantilever beam specimens, evaluated the fracture toughness of a high-yield-strength (338 MPa at 0.2% offset and 2.1% elongation) grade of VHP beryllium, with the chemical analysis being within the limits of grade S-200F and with a grain size of 8.8 ± 0.3 μm [ Perra and Finnie 1975 ]. Specimens...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 July 2009
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.bcp.t52230493
EISBN: 978-1-62708-298-3
... chemically milled (pickled) to improve surface finish. At Brush Wellman, most of the pickling is done in a nitric acid or sulfuric acid-peroxide bath. The spent acid liquor is neutralized with a caustic solution to precipitate the copper oxide and copper hydroxide. Table 27.2 Analysis of typical by...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 July 2009
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.bcp.t52230071
EISBN: 978-1-62708-298-3
... Abstract This chapter describes some of the chemical processes that have been developed to extract beryllium from different types of ore. It covers the Kjellgren-Sawyer sulfate method, the Degussa method, Copaux-Kawecki fluoride extraction, solvent extraction, and leaching and settling. It also...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 July 2009
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.bcp.t52230055
EISBN: 978-1-62708-298-3
... Abstract This chapter provides a fundamental understanding of beryllium reduction thermodynamics as a prerequisite for subsequent chapters on extraction, chemical processing, and corrosion. It examines a number of reduction methods along with a potential refining process, highlighting the...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 July 2009
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.bcp.t52230459
EISBN: 978-1-62708-298-3
... Abstract This chapter covers the corrosion behavior of beryllium in aqueous environments. It describes the chemical reactions that drive the corrosion process, the conditions required for equilibrium, and the factors that affect corrosion resistance. It discusses the stability of the native...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 July 2009
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.bcp.t52230513
EISBN: 978-1-62708-298-3
... Abstract This chapter covers regulatory requirements, safe handling practices, hazard analysis and control, dismantling and decommissioning, and waste disposal. It also includes references for additional information on government regulations. beryllium hygienic practices...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 July 2009
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.bcp.t52230199
EISBN: 978-1-62708-298-3
... Abstract This chapter explains how to safely prepare beryllium alloy samples for metallographic analysis. It describes grinding, polishing, and etching procedures in detail. It also discusses the identification of major and minor constituents and the general appearance of beryllium...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 July 2009
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.bcp.t52230253
EISBN: 978-1-62708-298-3
..., governed the nature of shrinkage voids and porosity in the ingot. It was found that centerline cracking appeared to be associated with ingot purity, possibly caused by rejection of impurities to the center of the ingot during solidification. However, chemical analysis could not verify this assumption...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 July 2009
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.bcp.t52230267
EISBN: 978-1-62708-298-3
... ranging from 1 to 2 wt%. Continuous sampling of the powder material and the determination of chemical and screen analyses are employed to permit blending of powders for a uniform product. Typical analyses of two commercial types of −200-mesh powder are given in Table 19.1 [ Hausner 1965d ]. The...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 July 2009
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.bcp.9781627082983
EISBN: 978-1-62708-298-3
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 July 2009
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.bcp.t52230401
EISBN: 978-1-62708-298-3
... performed on transverse and in-plane sections of the plate across and along the cracked weld. In addition, chemical analysis was performed. Typical of autogenous beryllium weldments, long, columnar grains formed, having nucleated epitaxially on partially melted base metal grains. (Epitaxial growth occurs...