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Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cfap.t69780146
EISBN: 978-1-62708-281-5
... Abstract This article discusses the chemical susceptibility of a polymeric material. The discussion covers significant absorption and transportation of an environmental reagent by the polymer; the chemical susceptibility of additives; and thermal degradation, thermal oxidative degradation...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cfap.t69780323
EISBN: 978-1-62708-281-5
... additives may create serious problems in the working life of plastics components ( Ref 52 ). The chemical resistance of plasticized plastics to organic liquids is usually less than that of the unplasticized plastics, such as polyvinyl chloride ( Ref 6 ). The interaction between the additives and the organic...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cfap.t69780105
EISBN: 978-1-62708-281-5
... thermogravimetric analysis thermomechanical testing molecular weight molecular weight distribution thermoplastic resins chemical analysis physical test DURING THE PROCESSING OF THERMOPLASTICS, polymer chains are sheared, twisted, distorted, stretched, and subjected to a vast array of flow histories. As a...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 April 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.imub.t53720139
EISBN: 978-1-62708-305-8
... Abstract The overall chemical composition of metals and alloys is most commonly determined by x-ray fluorescence (XRF) and optical emission spectroscopy (OES). High-temperature combustion and inert gas fusion methods are typically used to analyze dissolved gases (oxygen, nitrogen, and hydrogen...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cfap.t69780089
EISBN: 978-1-62708-281-5
... uniqueness of the infrared spectrum of a material, the identification of unknown materials, as well as chromatographic or wet chemical fractions, is one of the most powerful functions of IR spectroscopy. In addition, the progress of most thermoset reactions can be followed by monitoring appropriate...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.tpmpa.t54480293
EISBN: 978-1-62708-318-8
... operations. The chapter also covers chemical and electrochemical machining processes as well as flame cutting. chemical shaping machining titanium titanium alloys THIS CHAPTER INTRODUCES the terminology of conventional and nonconventional machining processes and details general guidelines for...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ssde.t52310257
EISBN: 978-1-62708-286-0
... Abstract This chapter focuses on the applications of stainless steels in chemical and process industry, covering what data are necessary and how they can be found. It begins with an overview of single- and dual-environment systems and the corrosion issues they face. This is followed by a...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2016
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.hpcspa.t54460107
EISBN: 978-1-62708-285-3
.... Courtesy of Air Products and Chemicals, Inc. Fig. 4.13 (a) Overview. (b) Liquid nitrogen storage tank and evaporator (Linde). (c) High-pressure compressors (J.A. Becker & Söhne) with storage tanks located below. (d) Pressure regulation panel (Polycontrols Technologies). Courtesy of National...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ttg2.t61120345
EISBN: 978-1-62708-269-3
... Abstract This appendix provides references for additional information on titanium and its alloys. The references are organized by topic based on the author’s recommendations. Topics include physical metallurgy, corrosion, processing, applications and developments, and general background...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 December 2020
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.phtbp.t59310079
EISBN: 978-1-62708-326-3
... Abstract The hardenability of steel is governed almost entirely by the chemical composition (carbon and alloy content) at the austenitizing temperature and the austenite grain size at the moment of quenching. This article introduces the methods to evaluate hardenability and the factors that...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.pdub.t53420041
EISBN: 978-1-62708-310-2
... Abstract This chapter explains how the principles of chemical thermodynamics are used in the construction and interpretation of phase diagrams. After a brief review of the laws of thermodynamics, it describes the concept of Gibbs free energy and its application to transformations that occur in...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.spsp2.t54410163
EISBN: 978-1-62708-265-5
... Inclusions and chemical segregation are factors in many process-induced failures involving steel parts. Inclusions are nonmetallic compounds introduced during production; segregation is a type of chemical partitioning that occurs during solidification. This chapter discusses the origins of...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 December 2020
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.phtbp.t59310095
EISBN: 978-1-62708-326-3
... information on residual elements, microalloying, grain refinement, mechanical properties, and grain size of these steels. In addition, the effects of free-machining additives are also discussed. carbon steel composition grain size hardenability low-alloy steel PLAIN CARBON STEELS are by far the...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 October 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.lmub.t53550325
EISBN: 978-1-62708-307-2
... cross links form during cure. After the resin gels and forms a rubbery solid, it cannot be remelted. Further heating causes additional cross-linking until the resin is fully cured. This progression through cure is shown in Fig. 7.2 . Because cure is a thermally-driven event requiring chemical reactions...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2007
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.htcma.t52080359
EISBN: 978-1-62708-304-1
....” In addition to recovering cooking chemicals for the pulping process, the boiler also recovers energy by producing process steam. Grant ( Ref 3 ) reported in 1997 that about 216 recovery boilers which were operated by 130 mills in the United States produced approximately 41% of the total energy used...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cub.t66910475
EISBN: 978-1-62708-250-1
... Abstract This chapter discusses the techniques applicable to the diagnosis of corrosion failures, including visual and microscopic examination of corroded surfaces and microstructure; chemical analysis of the metal, corrosion products, and bulk environment; nondestructive evaluation methods...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mfadr7.t91110379
EISBN: 978-1-62708-247-1
.... Method 1: FIB Chemically Enhanced Milling Process For this method, the addition of reactive gases to the vacuum enables the localized enhanced milling rate with selectivity. The injected gas reacts with atoms on the surface to form a volatile byproduct. [6] Likewise, selectivity can be greatly...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 July 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.fec.t65940023
EISBN: 978-1-62708-302-7
... Abstract This chapter provides a thorough introduction to the electrochemical thermodynamics that govern electrode reactions associated with corrosion. It begins with a review of the thermodynamic criteria for the stability of chemical reactions based on Gibbs free energy and explains how...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2016
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ascaam.t59190147
EISBN: 978-1-62708-296-9
... Abstract Intermetallic phase precipitates in aluminum alloys can often be identified without resorting to chemical analysis. Very often the determination can be made based on the shape, color, and refractive properties of the particular phase. This chapter explains how these visual attributes...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ems.t53730099
EISBN: 978-1-62708-283-9
... temperatures, additives, and the effect of stretching on thermoplastics. degradation branching polymers copolymers cross-linking polymers molecular configuration thermoplastics thermosetting polymers chemical additives THE WORD polymer is the scientific name for what is commonly called a...