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cause-and-effect diagrams

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Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 October 2011
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mnm2.t53060369
EISBN: 978-1-62708-261-7
... pH and how to adjust the pH to avoid corrosion. However, conclusions regarding their effectiveness in the presence of specific ions cannot be drawn. The iron Pourbaix diagram ( Fig. 15.14 ) illustrates the possibility for multiple states: corrosion (active state), passivity, and immunity...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1999
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cmp.t66770099
EISBN: 978-1-62708-337-9
..., the likely cause of variations observed, and their effect on mechanical properties and behaviors. The discussions throughout the chapter are aided by the use of images, diagrams, data plots, and tables. carbon content case-hardened steels grain size metallography microcracking microsegregation...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.horfi.9781627082563
EISBN: 978-1-62708-256-3
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2007
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.smnm.t52140055
EISBN: 978-1-62708-264-8
... manganese is sometimes added to steel and how unintended consequences, such as the development of sulfide stringers, can offset the benefits. It also examines the effect of alloying elements on the iron-carbon phase diagram, particularly their effect on transformation temperatures. alloying elements...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ahsssta.t53700023
EISBN: 978-1-62708-279-2
... steel. Although carbon is the element that transforms iron into steel, other elements are also added to produce a variety of desirable properties. The effect of the alloying elements on the Fe-C phase diagram is to shift its phase boundaries and the shapes of the phase areas. Figure 2.2 shows...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.pdub.t53420289
EISBN: 978-1-62708-310-2
... product predictability. In all these areas, the use of phase diagrams allows research, development, and production to be done more efficiently and cost effectively. In the area of alloy development, phase diagrams have proved invaluable for tailoring existing alloys to avoid over design in current...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 December 2020
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.phtbp.t59310055
EISBN: 978-1-62708-326-3
..., and therefore, CCT diagrams are commonly encountered in commercial practice. Few heat treatment processes involve stepwise cooling. If cooling rates are slow, the structures correspond more closely to the upper regions of the IT diagram. Faster cooling rates have considerable effect on the starting temperature...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2009
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.sfa.t52780025
EISBN: 978-1-62708-268-6
.... Sometimes, these graphical analyses are also called cause-effect diagrams. Fig. 4.2 Ishikawa diagram showing potential failure causes for a light bulb not illuminating. Ishikawa diagrams may help the failure analysis team identify more potential causes of failure than the mind-mapping technique...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.spsp2.t54410487
EISBN: 978-1-62708-265-5
... to effectively promote simultaneous transformation uniformly throughout a part. Fig. 20.3 Schematic time-temperature-transformation diagrams showing surface and center cooling rates for (a) conventional quenching, (b) martempering, and (c) modified martempering. Source: Ref 20.4 An important...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2007
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.smnm.t52140133
EISBN: 978-1-62708-264-8
... alloys with no carbon in them. The addition of even a very small amount of carbon has a large effect on the appearance of the chromium-iron phase diagram. When carbon is present, the phase diagram becomes a ternary diagram of Cr-Fe-C. Such diagrams were discussed briefly in Chapter 6, “The Low-Alloy...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.piht2.t55050093
EISBN: 978-1-62708-311-9
... and holding at temperature for various times, or continuous cooling and varying the cooling rate. The isothermal transformation (IT) diagrams show the effect of equilibrium conditions on cooling, whereas the continuous cooling transformation (CCT) diagrams show the effects of continuous cooling...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.emea.t52240177
EISBN: 978-1-62708-251-8
... , ASM Handbook , ASM International , 2004 4. Atlas of Isothermal and Continuous Cooling Diagrams , American Society for Metals , 1977 5. Bramfitt B.L. , Effects of Composition, Processing, and Structure on Properties of Irons and Steels , Materials Selection and Design , Vol 20...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ssde.t52310001
EISBN: 978-1-62708-286-0
..., at about 12% chromium, ferrite is stable at all temperatures. This is, coincidentally, the approximate level of chromium needed to keep alloys from rusting under ambient conditions, but this effect is not related to whether the structure is bcc or fcc. The iron-chromium phase diagram ( Fig. 1 ) shows...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.emea.t52240153
EISBN: 978-1-62708-251-8
... be hardened to a greater depth without causing the brittleness associated with high carbon contents. Fig. 10.32 Effect of carbon content on TTT diagram The M s and M f temperatures also depend on the carbon content of steel. When the carbon content is increased, carbide formation (Fe 3 C...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.pht2.t51440231
EISBN: 978-1-62708-262-4
...% (at a temperature of 865 °C, or 1590 °F). Thus, the 3.31% alloy contains more than the maximum amount of beryllium that can be dissolved in copper. This means that the increased hardness of the 3.31 and 4% alloys is not due to any additional aging effects but is simply caused by the presence of undissolved beta...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2007
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.smnm.t52140165
EISBN: 978-1-62708-264-8
... is shown in the full iron-carbon phase diagram in Fig. 15.3 . The diagram shows that when this alloy is held at 1100 °C (2010 °F), it should consist of single-phase austenite (no particles present) having the composition of 1.8% C. Consider, however, the effects of the microsegregation of carbon between...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.pdub.t53420143
EISBN: 978-1-62708-310-2
... properties. For example, the effect of carbon on tensile and impact properties is shown in Fig. 8.23 . The ultimate tensile strength steadily increases with increasing carbon content. This is caused by the increase in the volume fraction of pearlite in the microstructure, which has much higher strength than...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cub.t66910407
EISBN: 978-1-62708-250-1
... with salt water directly or with airborne salt can result in chloride penetration into the concrete. Cathodic protection can be used to effectively arrest the detrimental corrosion of steel in chloride-containing concrete. A schematic diagram of a cathodic protection system for steel and concrete...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.pdub.t53420015
EISBN: 978-1-62708-310-2
... point have little effect on the melting point of a metal, and the line separating the solid and liquid regions is almost vertical. The application of the phase rule to the one-component diagram for magnesium ( Fig. 2.4 ) will show the significance of its terms. In this case there is only one...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.spsp2.t54410579
EISBN: 978-1-62708-265-5
... of the importance of phase stability and composition, especially with respect to welding of austenitic stainless steels, several diagrams have been developed to show the effects of various combinations of austenite- and ferrite-stabilizing elements on ferrite content in stainless steels. The ferrite-stabilizing...