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cathode tubes

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Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cpi2.t55030184
EISBN: 978-1-62708-282-2
.... Taking into account back potential and polarization of the anodes and waterbox, select a potential controlled rectifier with separate units for each waterbox having a rating of 50 A and 12 V dc. The cathodic protection system must hold the potential of the titanium tube sheet at no more than −650 mV...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cpi2.t55030247
EISBN: 978-1-62708-282-2
... up from $589 million for surface piping and facility costs, $463 million in downhole tubing expenses, and $320 million in capital expenditures related to corrosion. The control of corrosion through the use of coatings, metallurgy, nonmetallic materials of construction, cathodic protection, inhibitors...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cub.t66910099
EISBN: 978-1-62708-250-1
... and galvanic corrosion that can occur in a liquid environment when ions of more cathodic metal (e.g., copper) are plated out of solution onto a more anodic metal surface (e.g., aluminum). Despite its shortcomings, the classification of corrosion forms based on physical appearance or attack mechanism allows...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cpi2.t55030019
EISBN: 978-1-62708-282-2
..., with severely accelerated localized attack occurring at the holidays in the otherwise protective coating. If inert barrier coatings are employed, both the anode and cathode must be protected—for example, the heads, tubesheets, and tubes (for a distance of the first 4 to 6 tube diameters on the tube side...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ssde.t52310247
EISBN: 978-1-62708-286-0
... be susceptible to cracking while the other is not. There have been no reported downhole failures of annealed or cold-worked duplex alloys. There was one instance of very high-strength tubing cracking after cathodic contact with carbon steel casing. This was after removal from the well and after handling...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cub.t66910301
EISBN: 978-1-62708-250-1
... be designed to prevent hot vapor pockets ( Fig. 4 ). In general, the open ends of inlets, outlets, and tubes in heat exchangers should be flush with tank walls or tubesheets to avoid buildup of harmful corrodents, sludges, and deposits ( Fig. 5 ). This is also true of tank bottom and drainage designs ( Fig. 6...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.tpmpa.t54480331
EISBN: 978-1-62708-318-8
... units as baffle plates, thermowells, tubing, and valves. The metal has excellent resistance to metallic chlorides and is used extensively for handling brine, and iron, nickel, and copper chlorides. The metal is also used to process sodium, potassium, ammonium, calcium, aluminum, magnesium, and zinc...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cpi2.t55030180
EISBN: 978-1-62708-282-2
... Schematic anodic polarization curve. Metal-environment systems that have this type of anodic polarization behavior are termed active-passive and can be anodically protected. Source: Ref 23 Fig. 3 Schematic of an anodic protection system. One or more cathodes, a reference electrode, a potential...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 October 2011
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mnm2.t53060369
EISBN: 978-1-62708-261-7
... 600 (active) Yellow and red brasses, aluminum bronze, and silicon bronzes Copper and copper-nickel alloys Silver solder Nickel (passive) Alloy 600 (passive) Alloy 400 Titanium Type 304 and 316 stainless steels (passive) Silver, gold, platinum Most cathodic (noble...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.emea.t52240323
EISBN: 978-1-62708-251-8
..., cavitation, fretting corrosion, intergranular corrosion, exfoliation, dealloying corrosion, stress-corrosion cracking, and corrosion fatigue. The chapter discusses the processes involved in corrosion control by retarding either the anodic or cathodic reactions. The rate of corrosion is reduced...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 1999
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.caaa.t67870063
EISBN: 978-1-62708-299-0
... form a strong galvanic cell with a potential difference of about 0.12 V. Furthermore, the anodic copper-depleted zone is small in area compared with the area of the cathodic grain matrix, resulting in a high driving force for rapid intergranular corrosion. Source: Ref 1 Fig. 5 Plot...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cub.t66910237
EISBN: 978-1-62708-250-1
..., such as protective coatings, cathodic protection, or a combination of these corrosion prevention methods. The intent of this chapter is to (a) review the corrosion behavior of the major classes of metals and alloys as well as some nonmetallic materials, (b) describe typical corrosion applications, (c) present...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cub.t66910363
EISBN: 978-1-62708-250-1
... is achieved by the addition of inhibitive pigments to paints. Sacrificial protection is achieved by coating the substrate with a more active metal. This results in the substrate becoming the cathode in the corrosion cell. Galvanized steel, which is comprised of a thin layer of metallic zinc over a steel...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cpi2.t55030045
EISBN: 978-1-62708-282-2
..., particularly in welded areas after hydrotesting with natural river or well waters Power generation: nuclear, hydro, fossil fuel, and geothermal Carbon and stainless steel piping and tanks; copper-nickel, stainless, brass, and aluminum-bronze cooling water pipes and tubes, especially during construction...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 July 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.fec.t65940233
EISBN: 978-1-62708-302-7
... The polarization resistance method Fig. 6.8 Polarization curves with IR corrections Fig. 6.7 The IR connection. (a) Anodic external current. (b) Cathodic external current Fig. 6.9 The current-interrupt IR-correction method. Based on Ref 2 Fig. 6.6 Schematic arrangements...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.secwr.t68350011
EISBN: 978-1-62708-315-7
... chloride-dihydrate, 35 °C (95°F). Galvanic coupling due to copper salt reduction to copper metal. More severe than ASTM B 117 FACT (formerly ASTM B 538) Testing anodized aluminum specimens. Electrolyte as in salt spray or CASS test. Specimen is made the cathode to generate high pH at defects...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cpi2.t55030292
EISBN: 978-1-62708-282-2
... corrosion resistance, these are often overlaid with stainless steels such as type 347. Other applications for low-alloy steels are furnace tubes, heat-exchangers shells, piping, and separator drums. Stainless Steels Stainless steels are extensively used in petrochemical plants because of the highly...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2017
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.sccmpe2.t55090135
EISBN: 978-1-62708-266-2
... solutions can be recognized in a potential-pH (Pourbaix) diagram ( Fig. 5.1 ). According to this scheme, when the pH is less than the depassivation pH, active corrosion of the alloy occurs. In the absence of other cathodic reactions, active corrosion results in the generation of hydrogen as the cathodic...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 July 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.fec.t65940451
EISBN: 978-1-62708-302-7
... Method for Seal Quality of Anodic Coatings on Aluminum by Acid Dissolution • B 732, Test Method for Evaluating the Corrosivity of Solder Fluxes for Copper Tubing Systems • B 735, Test Method for Porosity in Gold Coatings on Metal Substrates by Nitric Acid Vapor • B 741, Test Methods...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.pnfn.t65900163
EISBN: 978-1-62708-350-8
... Extrusion dies lifted from the furnace hearth to allow the plasma glow seam to cover the die completely. Note the die supports (steel tubes) used to maintain cathode potentials. Threaded holes must be protected from nitriding. This is accomplished simply by partially inserting a threaded stud...