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catastrophic oxidation

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Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2007
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.htcma.t52080005
EISBN: 978-1-62708-304-1
... in which the alloys are used. If the oxide is present as a liquid state, catastrophic oxidation can occur. Since many engineering alloys contain many alloying elements for various metallurgical reasons, formation of oxides that become liquid at the service temperature should be prevented. Table 3.1 shows...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 July 2009
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.bcp.t52230485
EISBN: 978-1-62708-298-3
...-9672, U.S. Atomic Energy Commission Ervin G. Jr. , and MacKay T.L. , 1964b . Catastrophic Oxidation of Beryllium Metal , J. Nucl. Mater. , Vol 12 , p 30 – 39 10.1016/0022-3115(64)90104-7 Ervin G. Jr. , and MacKay T.L. , 1965 . The Influence of Dislocations...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ffub.t53610001
EISBN: 978-1-62708-303-4
...-welded high-energy piping failures 1986–2000 Cavitation and creep voids in welds resulting in catastrophic high-energy rupture Development of elevated-temperature life-assessment techniques for cavitation and creep failure Aloha incident, Boeing 737 1988 Accelerated corrosion and multiple fatigue...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.fibtca.t52430343
EISBN: 978-1-62708-253-2
... and condensate returns. The contamination of boiler feedwater (BFW) can be a slow, degenerative process or an instantaneous, catastrophic event. Boiler water chemistry control has a major role to play in averting boiler tube failure. Boiler water chemistry control is a very vast subject by itself...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.emea.t52240583
EISBN: 978-1-62708-251-8
..., processed into chemicals, and then into powders. The powders are consolidated into finished products or mill shapes and ingots for further processing. All processing must be conducted in either a vacuum or other protective atmosphere to prevent catastrophic oxidation. 31.1 Niobium Niobium, formerly...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ssde.t52310069
EISBN: 978-1-62708-286-0
... oxides (MoO 3 and WO 3 ) that promote catastrophic oxidation ( Ref 22 , 23 ). Vanadium also forms an oxide, V 2 O 5 , which melts at 660 °C and can also cause catastrophic oxidation. The formation of an oxide on stainless steel should be understood to imply de facto the depletion of chromium from...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.stg2.t61280287
EISBN: 978-1-62708-267-9
... adequate thicknesses of Al 2 O 3 in a reasonable time. If the Al 2 O 3 layer is eroded by hot gases or rubbed or scuffed accidentally, removing the Al 2 O 3 layer, and operation is continued at temperatures where the protective layer will not reform very rapidly, catastrophic oxidation results...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ssde.t52310057
EISBN: 978-1-62708-286-0
... oxide, but this can oxidize further to form the low-melting and volatile MoO 3 . If the MoO 3 evaporates, there is little problem, but if its volatilization is inhibited by low atmosphere circulation, liquid MoO 3 can accumulate and dissolve the protective Cr 2 O 3 scale, leading to catastrophic...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 October 2011
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mnm2.t53060385
EISBN: 978-1-62708-261-7
...-phosphorus alloy plating Ceramic (WC, CrC, aluminum oxide) or cobalt-base coatings applied by thermal spray processes ( Fig. 16.2 ) Physical vapor deposition (PVD) coatings such as TiN and TiAlN Fig. 16.2 Application of thermal spray coating on a shaft. Courtesy of ASB Industries, Inc...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 1999
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.caaa.t67870179
EISBN: 978-1-62708-299-0
... Abstract This chapter discusses the ambient-temperature corrosion characteristics of aluminum metal-matrix composites (MMCs), including composites formed with boron, graphite, silicon carbide, aluminum oxide, and mica. It also discusses the effect of stress-corrosion cracking on graphite...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cpi2.t55030235
EISBN: 978-1-62708-282-2
... vary considerably; the design function can be partially or totally affected, or the onset of failure can be gradual or sudden. The combination of sudden and total failure represents the worst catastrophic situation (e.g., explosions, fires, and total structural collapse), many of which can...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 October 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.lmub.t53550569
EISBN: 978-1-62708-307-2
..., continuous fiber ceramic composites, and carbon-carbon composites. It also describes a number of ceramic-matrix composite processing methods, including cold pressing and sintering, hot pressing, reaction bonding, directed metal oxidation, and liquid, vapor, and polymer infiltration. ceramic-matrix...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 September 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.fahtsc.t51130151
EISBN: 978-1-62708-284-6
... and sometimes intermetallic phases embedded in a metallic matrix (Ref 16) . They are usually simple oxides, sulfides, or nitrides. In almost all instances of metal casting, they are considered to be detrimental to the performance of the cast component. Sometimes, an intentional introduction in larger...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 November 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.uhcf3.t53630081
EISBN: 978-1-62708-270-9
... or impact; improper heat treatment; and/or environmental embrittlement. Brittle fractures, rather than ductile fractures, are more often the subject of a failure investigation, because they are often sudden, unexpected, and sometimes catastrophic. Similar to metals, many nonmetallic materials...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mfadr7.t91110524
EISBN: 978-1-62708-247-1
... and 1980’s is often used. The process is designed to make most of the chip electrically non-conductive. This is usually done by introducing an insulating layer (such as an oxide layer) between the semiconductor and the contact metal. Alternately, proton bombardment can be used to increase the resistance...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 November 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.uhcf3.t53630237
EISBN: 978-1-62708-270-9
..., if the operational loads do not exceed the yield strength of the metal. The principal types of elevated-temperature failure mechanisms are creep, stress rupture, low-cycle or high-cycle fatigue, thermal fatigue, overload, hot corrosion, embrittlement, sulfidation, carburization, oxidation, distortion...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2023
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.stmflw.t59390039
EISBN: 978-1-62708-459-8
... in final products. Surface roughening due to wear can have detrimental performance or aesthetic effects. If it leads to premature catastrophic failure, such as fracture, wear can cause production delays and compromise process economics. Wear can require selection of more expensive tooling...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1989
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.dmlahtc.t60490001
EISBN: 978-1-62708-340-9
... refineries can cause material-related problems such as embrittlement, creep, thermal fatigue, hot corrosion, and oxidation. It also discusses the factors and considerations involved in determining design life, defining failure criteria, and implementing remaining-life-assessment procedures. chemical...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 April 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ps.t62440103
EISBN: 978-1-62708-352-2
... that the filler metal wets and spreads over the component surfaces. However, this situation represents the ideal case because oxides and other nonmetallic species are usually present on surfaces that have been exposed to ambient atmospheres and these will interfere with or inhibit wetting and alloying. Any oxygen...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cpi2.t55030033
EISBN: 978-1-62708-282-2
... and aluminum alloys, are useful only because of passive films, which are thin (nanometer-scale) oxide layers that form naturally on the metal surface and greatly reduce the rate of corrosion of the alloys. Such passive films, however, are often susceptible to localized breakdown, resulting in accelerated...