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catalytic cracking units

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Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2017
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.sccmpe2.t55090043
EISBN: 978-1-62708-266-2
... steel in carbonate solution. Source: Ref 2.129 Intergranular carbonate cracking also has occurred in other systems. For example, it was blamed for piping failures at a refinery catalytic cracking unit ( Ref 2.11 ). The transgranular cracks associated with near-neutral-pH SCC are generally...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2017
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.sccmpe2.t55090095
EISBN: 978-1-62708-266-2
... used in the United States ( Ref 4.137 ). Weld overlays, in the as-deposited state, of several austenitic stainless steels have been reported to be resistant to polythionic acid SCC ( Ref 4.138 ). Stress-corrosion cracking of sensitized type 304 in thiosulfate solutions at ambient temperatures is of...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2007
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.htcma.t52080379
EISBN: 978-1-62708-304-1
... accelerated nitridation attack in front of the crack. Source: Ref 11 The waterwalls in some coal-fired boilers, particularly some supercritical units, have been found to encounter preferential corrosion penetration. These supercritical boilers are typically equipped with low NO x burners and...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2017
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.sccmpe2.t55090135
EISBN: 978-1-62708-266-2
... Abstract Nickel and nickel-base alloys are specified for many applications, such as oil and gas production, power generation, and chemical processing, because of their resistance to stress-corrosion cracking (SCC). Under certain conditions, however, SCC can be a concern. This chapter describes...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cpi2.t55030292
EISBN: 978-1-62708-282-2
...), stress-corrosion cracking (SCC), velocity-accelerated corrosion, erosion-corrosion, and corrosion control is provided herein. The selection of materials of construction has a significant impact on the operability, economics, and reliability of refining units and petrochemical plants. For this...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cpi2.t55030209
EISBN: 978-1-62708-282-2
.... Ideally, the aqueous dewpoint is shifted by the addition of the water wash. This practice must be carefully studied to determine the proper amount and injection location due to the complexities of the multiphase system ( Ref 3 ). Catalytic and thermal cracking units such as fluid catalytic cracking...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cub.t66910331
EISBN: 978-1-62708-250-1
... provides information on materials selection under general corrosion conditions and under conditions of localized corrosion forms such as pitting, crevice corrosion, and stress-corrosion cracking. corrosion control materials selection corrosion resistance fabrication pitting crevice corrosion...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.fibtca.t52430290
EISBN: 978-1-62708-253-2
... thinning Failure was noticed in the waterwall tube in a waste heat boiler of a fluidized catalytic cracker unit after about 8 years of service. The MOC of the tube was SA 210 Grade A1 HFS, and the tube dimensions were 50.8 mm (2 in.) OD and 4.06 mm (0.16 in...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.aub.t61170257
EISBN: 978-1-62708-297-6
... property and performance data. It also discusses the effect of various alloying elements on pitting, crevice corrosion, sensitization, stress-corrosion cracking, and oxidation resistance. austenitic stainless steel duplex stainless steel ferritic stainless steel martensitic stainless steel...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mfub.t53740373
EISBN: 978-1-62708-308-9
... cracks, density variations, and microlaminations. powder characteristics powder metallurgy POWDER METALLURGY (P/M) is the process of blending fine powdered materials, pressing (compacting) them into a desired shape or form, and then heating the compressed material in a controlled atmosphere...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 April 2020
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.bpapp.t59290139
EISBN: 978-1-62708-319-5
... Binder removal occurs in two stages. Pore opening is the first stage, and several options are possible, such as binder sublimation, thermal decomposition, wicking, solvent dissolution, or catalytic depolymerization. Some structures are not saturated with binder, so first-stage removal is skipped. With...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2007
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.htcma.t52080201
EISBN: 978-1-62708-304-1
... hydrodesulfurization equipment at 415 °C (780 °F) and 27.2 atm (400 psig). Source: Ref 42 Fig. 7.17 Maximum anticipated corrosion rates for alloys in catalytic reforming equipment at 510 °C (950 °F) and 27.2 (400 psig). Source: Ref 42 The corrosion data in catalytic reforming units generated by...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2007
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.htcma.t52080321
EISBN: 978-1-62708-304-1
... oxidation penetrations, which developed into circumferential grooves and cracks. Kawamura and Harada ( Ref 8 ) also observed circumferential grooving or cracking on furnace waterwall tubes made of 2.25Cr-1Mo steel in an oil-fired supercritical unit. Fig. 11.5 Close-up view of the tube surface near...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 April 2020
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.bpapp.t59290035
EISBN: 978-1-62708-319-5
... underpin binder design concepts treated in Chapter 4, “Binder Formulation,” in this book. Of all binder ingredients, polymers are dominant. The word polymer implies a molecule having numerous repeating subunits, similar to a pearl necklace. Each pearl represents the basic unit, and the length of...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2010
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.scm.t52870063
EISBN: 978-1-62708-314-0
... type is DGEBA ( Fig. 3.6 ). Since it is a difunctional epoxy (such as two epoxy end groups that can react) that can be either a liquid or a solid; and is available as a liquid at several viscosities, it is frequently used for filament winding and pultrusion. If the repeat unit ( n ) is between 0.1 and...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 April 2020
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.bpapp.9781627083195
EISBN: 978-1-62708-319-5
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2007
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.pmsspmp.t52000039
EISBN: 978-1-62708-312-6
... incomplete or improper debinding can lead to cracking during the sintering cycle ( Ref 22 ). Fast debinding techniques permit their integration into the sintering cycle. Solvent and catalytic debinding techniques provide superior dimensional control. Mathew and Mastromatto ( Ref 25 ) describe a water...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 April 2020
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.bpapp.t59290111
EISBN: 978-1-62708-319-5
... create problems. To avoid cracks and distortion during manufacturing, section thickness is kept as uniform as possible. An introduction to size, shape, and complexity considerations for several shaping options is given in Table 6.2 . The quantitative values are nominal. The relative rate of component...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mfub.t53740213
EISBN: 978-1-62708-308-9
...: Grinding burns on high-strength steel Untempered martensite in drilled holes in steel components Grinding cracks in the root sections of cast nickel-base gas turbine buckets Lower fatigue strength of parts processed by electrical discharge machining Distortion of thin components Residual...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 October 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.lmub.t53550325
EISBN: 978-1-62708-307-2
... Chapter 8, “Polymer-Matrix Composites,” in this book. A plastic is a polymeric material composed of molecules made up of many (poly-) repeats of some simpler unit, the mer. All polymers are chemically constructed of repeats of the basic mer unit, which is chemically bonded to others of its kind to...