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casting defects

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Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.msisep.t59220129
EISBN: 978-1-62708-259-4
..., macro- and microsegregation, and hot cracking, as well as the effects of solidification and remelting on castings, ingots, and continuous cast products. It explains how to determine where defects originate in continuous casters and how to control alumina, sulfide, and nitride inclusions...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mfub.t53740047
EISBN: 978-1-62708-308-9
... Abstract This chapter covers the practices and procedures used for shape casting metals and alloys. It begins with a review of the factors that influence solidification and contribute to the formation of casting defects. It then describes basic melting methods, including induction, cupola...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mfub.t53740001
EISBN: 978-1-62708-308-9
...-alloy steels, and high-temperature alloys and superalloys. Argon oxygen decarburization units are used in the production of high-alloy castings, particularly of grades that are prone to defects due to high gas contents. Carbon and low-alloy steels for castings with heavy wall sections may be subject to...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mfub.t53740373
EISBN: 978-1-62708-308-9
... mechanical, chemical, electrochemical, and atomizing processes used in powder production, discusses powder treatments, and describes consolidation techniques along with secondary operations used to obtain special properties or improve dimensional precision. It also discusses common defects such as ejection...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mfub.t53740163
EISBN: 978-1-62708-308-9
...-carbon steel Fe-0.10 to 0.20C Unalloyed cast iron, 185 to 225 HB Fe-3C-1.6Si-0.7Mn Alloy cast iron, 200 to 250 HB Fe-3C-1.6Si-0.4Cr-0.4Mo Cast high-carbon steel, 185 to 225 HB Fe-0.75C Cast alloy steel, 200 to 235 HB Fe-0.45C-1.1Cr-0.4Mo 4140 alloy steel Fe-0.4C-0.6Mn-0.3Si-1Cr-0.2Mo...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mfub.t53740103
EISBN: 978-1-62708-308-9
... titanium and superalloy hot forgings. In many cases, the internal and surface imperfections that occur during forging are defects that originated during the initial hot working of ingots or billets. Figure 8 shows a secondary pipe that originated during ingot casting that was not closed...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mfub.t53740325
EISBN: 978-1-62708-308-9
... edges and surfaces of castings, forgings, machined and stamped components, and molded and fabricated parts. Traditionally, these processes have been considered a means of developing attractive, decorative surfaces and generating suitable preplate and prepaint surfaces. Lapping is a low...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 April 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.imub.t53720293
EISBN: 978-1-62708-305-8
... inspection. Casting defects including porosity, oxide films, inclusions, hot tears, metal penetration, and surface defects are reviewed. Liquid penetrant inspection, magnetic particle inspection, eddy current inspection, radiographic inspection, ultrasonic inspection, and leak testing for castings are...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ffub.t53610585
EISBN: 978-1-62708-303-4
... Abstract This appendix provides detailed information on design deficiencies, material and manufacturing defects, and service-life anomalies. It covers ingot-related defects, forging and sheet forming imperfections, casting defects, heat treating defects, and weld discontinuities. It shows how...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 April 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.imub.t53720021
EISBN: 978-1-62708-305-8
... Abstract Visual inspection is the most important method of inspection of materials. This chapter describes the procedures involved in visual inspection such as identification markings, identification of defects caused by heating problems, scaling of materials, cracking characterization, and...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 April 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.imub.t53720001
EISBN: 978-1-62708-305-8
... perpendicular to x-ray film. Pipeline welds for penetration, inclusions, and voids; internal defects in castings Visual optical Surface characteristics such as finish, scratches, cracks, or color; strain in transparent materials; corrosion Often convenient; can be automated Can be applied only to...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 April 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.imub.t53720365
EISBN: 978-1-62708-305-8
... Control , Volume 17, ASM Handbook , 1989. The elements in a cast alloy are seldom distributed uniformly. Even unalloyed metals contain random amounts of various types of impurities in the form of tramp elements or dissolved gases that are seldom distributed uniformly. Therefore, the composition of...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 April 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.imub.t53720321
EISBN: 978-1-62708-305-8
... the nondestructive inspection of bars as it does for castings, forgings, or machined products. The method is used for detecting seams, cracks, and other surface flaws, and, to a limited extent, subsurface flaws. As a rule, the method is not capable of detecting flaws that are more than 2.5 mm (0.1 in...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 April 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.imub.t53720267
EISBN: 978-1-62708-305-8
..., pipe Rolled products: laminations, inclusions, tears, seams, cracks Castings: slag, porosity, cold shuts, tears, shrinkage cracks, inclusions Fatigue cracks, corrosion, erosion, stress-corrosion cracks Angle beam, contact Forgings: cracks, seams, laps Rolled products: tears, seams, cracks, cupping...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 April 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.imub.t53720183
EISBN: 978-1-62708-305-8
... and nonferrous metal wrought and cast products, powder metallurgy parts, ceramics, plastics, and glass objects. The liquid penetrant inspection method is relatively simple to perform; there are few limitations due to specimen material and geometry, and it is inexpensive. The equipment is very...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 April 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.imub.t53720161
EISBN: 978-1-62708-305-8
... in handling specimens of difficult shapes or sizes during the subsequent steps of metallographic preparation and examination. A secondary purpose is to protect and preserve extreme edges or surface defects during metallographic preparation. The method of mounting should in no way be injurious to the...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 April 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.imub.t53720233
EISBN: 978-1-62708-305-8
.... The image formed on a radiograph is similar to the shadow cast on a screen by an opaque object placed in a beam of light. Although radiation used in radiography penetrates an opaque object whereas light does not, the geometric laws of shadow formation are basically the same. X-rays, gamma rays, and...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 April 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.imub.t53720411
EISBN: 978-1-62708-305-8
.../Incomplete penetration Gas metal arc welding (GMAW) Porosity Incomplete fusion/Incomplete penetration Gas tungsten arc welding (GTAW) Porosity The commonly encountered inclusions, as well as cracking, the most serious of weld defects, will be discussed in this section...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.pdub.t53420429
EISBN: 978-1-62708-310-2
... Abstract The solidification process has a major influence on the microstructure and mechanical properties of metal casting as well as wrought products. This appendix covers the fundamentals of solidification. It discusses the formation of solidification structures, the characteristics of planar...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 September 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.fahtsc.t51130151
EISBN: 978-1-62708-284-6
... requirements. If a component has a large amount of porosity, for example, it is not a defect unless (1) an inspection porosity is specified, (2) its amount exceeds the required acceptance criterion, or (3) the component fails because of this porosity. This chapter describes cast steel features that may be...