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cast stainless steels

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Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 December 2020
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.phtbp.t59310233
EISBN: 978-1-62708-326-3
... Abstract This chapter discusses the composition and classification of stainless steels and focuses on the processes involved in heat treatment and applications of these steels. The wrought and the cast stainless steels covered are ferritic, austenitic, duplex (ferritic-austenitic), martensitic...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ssde.t52310123
EISBN: 978-1-62708-286-0
... martensitic structure is detrimental to strength, hardness, and toughness. Ferrite can appear in the as-cast structure and be formed during austenitizing or tempering. All the usual concerns inherent in any martensitic alloys are still present; temper embrittlement, retained austenite, etc. Martensitic...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.aub.t61170257
EISBN: 978-1-62708-297-6
... structure is inherently stronger and more creep resistant than ferrite. Table 16 Effect of nickel content on the generally accepted maximum service temperature in air for two cast stainless steels Stainless steel Composition, wt% Maximum continuous service temperature, °C Ni Cr Si HF...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ssde.t52310109
EISBN: 978-1-62708-286-0
... 0.04 0.03 Ti + Nb: 0.20 + 4x(C + N) to 0.80 … … 446 S44600 0.2 0.25 23.0–27.0 0.6 1.5 1 … 0.04 0.03 … … … CC-50 Cast alloy 0.5 … 26.0–30 4 1 1.5 … … … … … … The low-chromium ferritic stainless steels began with the development of MF-1, the predecessor of 409...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ssde.t52310069
EISBN: 978-1-62708-286-0
... labeled austenite shown in Fig. 1 ( Ref 1 ). This diagram was designed to show which phases are present in alloys in the as-solidified condition, such as found in welds. Thus it also applies to castings and continuously cast products. As a practical matter of castability, the composition of most...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ssde.t52310091
EISBN: 978-1-62708-286-0
... excessively ferritic and disturbing the desirable 50-to-50 ratio of austenite to ferrite. Secondary austenite with low nitrogen is remedied by diffusion if the phase forms at higher temperatures at which diffusion of nitrogen can rehomogenize the nitrogen level. Fig. 7 (a) As-cast duplex structure...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2007
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.pmsspmp.9781627083126
EISBN: 978-1-62708-312-6
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 September 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.fahtsc.t51130541
EISBN: 978-1-62708-284-6
...) 8.6–11 4.8–6.3 Maraging steel 9.9 5.5 Protactinium (Pa) 9.8–10 5.4–5.8 Water-hardening tool steel 10–11 5.6–5.9 Molybdenum high-speed too steel 6.8–14 3.8–7.8 Niobium alloys 9.3–12 5.2–6.5 Ferritic stainless steel 7.6–14 4.2–7.5 Pure Neodymium (Nd) 11 5.9 Cast...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mgppis.9781627082587
EISBN: 978-1-62708-258-7
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.aub.t61170234
EISBN: 978-1-62708-297-6
...% Mo and 1.4% Ti, nominal. (c) Contains 5% Cr Special varieties of maraging steels have been developed, including stainless grades, other cast grades, grades of other strength levels, low-cobalt or cobalt-free grades, a grade especially suited for heavy sections, and a grade with superior...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 December 2020
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.phtbp.t59310203
EISBN: 978-1-62708-326-3
...–850 °C (1470–1560 °F), and then cooling to room temperature in still air. It is performed on steel ingots and castings to minimize chemical segregation. Normalizing Heating the steel to 40–50 °C (80–90 °F) above Ac 3 for hypoeutectoid steels and 40–50 °C (80–90 °F) above A cm for...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 1999
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.lmcs.9781627082914
EISBN: 978-1-62708-291-4
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.pht2.t51440191
EISBN: 978-1-62708-262-4
... 5.0% Cr, P4 has greater resistance to deterioration from heat so that it usually is used for molding plastics that require higher temperatures. Grade P4 also is used for dies for die casting of zinc. Table 5 Heat treating practice for grades P2 and P4 mold steels Treatment Type P2 (T51602...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 September 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.fahtsc.t51130311
EISBN: 978-1-62708-284-6
... hot (or warm) work. In hot work tooling, the operating temperature interacts with the steel structure, which is very important for materials selection. Hot work tooling may be divided into three major applications: hot forging, especially for steel forgings; extrusion; and die casting ( Fig. 2...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 December 2020
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.phtbp.t59310095
EISBN: 978-1-62708-326-3
... involving the use of a larger percentage of steel scrap per steel heat. Steel melting is increasingly done by the electric arc furnace (EAF) method rather than the open hearth or basic oxygen furnace (BOF) method previously used. The newer steelmaking technology also uses “continuous casting” technology...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.aub.t61170210
EISBN: 978-1-62708-297-6
... isostatic pressing (HIP), is also used in making tool steels. Powder metallurgy processing provides, first, a more uniform carbide size and distribution in large sections, and, second, special compositions that are difficult or impossible to produce by melting and casting and then mechanically working the...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 December 2020
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.phtbp.t59310285
EISBN: 978-1-62708-326-3
... dies are used at lower hardnesses, typically approximately 40 to 60 HRC. Some examples are molds for glass and plastic parts; dies for aluminum casting; extrusion, wire drawing, and forging dies; and bending and roll forming tools. Some molds, dies, and metalforming tools come into contact with red...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.aub.t61170123
EISBN: 978-1-62708-297-6
... steels. Steels are also produced in cast and powder metallurgy (P/M) form. Alloying elements are added to cast or P/M ferrous materials for the same reasons they are added to wrought steels: primarily to improve strength and hardenability. Alloying elements are added to ordinary (plain...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2007
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.smnm.t52140175
EISBN: 978-1-62708-264-8
.... cast iron chemical composition fracture behavior microstructure solidification CAST IRONS DIFFER from high-carbon steels in several aspects, including the following two: They cannot be converted to 100% austenite during heat treatment. The other phase present in the austenite is...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ssde.t52310147
EISBN: 978-1-62708-286-0
... Abstract With typical alloy systems, casting is often the most convenient method by which to produce components. This is true for stainless steels, both for corrosion-resisting and for heat-resisting applications. This chapter discusses stainless steel casting alloys and their metallurgy...