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Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 April 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.tpsfwea.t59300179
EISBN: 978-1-62708-323-2
... Abstract This chapter covers the friction and wear behaviors of cast irons. It describes the microstructure and metallurgy of gray, white, malleable, and ductile cast irons, their respective tensile properties, and their suitability for applications involving friction, various types of erosion...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 December 2020
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.phtbp.t59310331
EISBN: 978-1-62708-326-3
... Abstract Cast irons, like steels, are iron-carbon alloys but with higher carbon levels than steels to take advantage of eutectic solidification in the binary iron-carbon system. Like steel, heat treatment of cast iron includes stress relieving, annealing, normalizing, through hardening, and...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 April 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.tpsfwea.t59300199
EISBN: 978-1-62708-323-2
... Park, OH : ASM International , 1985 , p 379 – 465 10.31399/asm.hb.v18.9781627081924 Steel, as we know it, did not appear in commercial use until the invention of the Bessemer furnace in 1850 (or thereabouts). Cast irons existed, but they did not have the malleability of steel. Steel is an...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 April 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.tpsfwea.9781627083232
EISBN: 978-1-62708-323-2
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 April 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.tpsfwea.t59300421
EISBN: 978-1-62708-323-2
... counterface, even if it is cast iron, does not have the cross-hatched lapped surface lay of a cylinder wall. The continuous motion of a pin-on-disk test rig does not simulate the reciprocating motion in an internal combustion engine. The friction effect of an oil must be ascertained under conditions that...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 April 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.tpsfwea.t59300163
EISBN: 978-1-62708-323-2
... soldered. Copper alloys traditionally have not been used for applications where resistance to abrasive wear is a requirement. Museums are rife with all sorts of artifacts from Greek and Roman times made from bronzes, but most are decorative or functional for household applications. Cast irons and...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 April 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.tpsfwea.t59300227
EISBN: 978-1-62708-323-2
... compete with stainless steels. Like cast irons, carbon steel, alloy steels, and tool steels, there are many types of stainless steels, and these different types correlate with the possible microstructures of stainless steel...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 April 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.tpsfwea.t59300391
EISBN: 978-1-62708-323-2
... deposit; there could be iron, copper, and sulfur compounds. Thus, mineral oil is different in composition everywhere it is found. This is significant because most of these noncarbon or hydrogen substances must be removed, and sometimes special processes are needed to remove them. For example, refineries...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 April 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.tpsfwea.t59300335
EISBN: 978-1-62708-323-2
... adjuvants to meet most needs. Some tribological coatings, such as enameled steel, go back approximately a century. Enameled steel is the familiar glass coating that has been applied to cast iron bathtubs and sinks and to steel stovetops almost from the start of indoor plumbing; the glass keeps the work...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 April 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.tpsfwea.t59300001
EISBN: 978-1-62708-323-2
... bushings versus shaft applications. Most fractional horsepower motors come equipped with these types of plain bearings. Cast irons have been used from the start for internal combustion engines because they work successfully in this application. Austenitic stainless steel is avoided for many wear...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 April 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.tpsfwea.t59300121
EISBN: 978-1-62708-323-2
.... Fig. 5.1 Test specimens for ring versus cylinder wear testing In the example of the comparison of low and high viscosity oil, a simpler test was initiated to start with using a reciprocating hard steel ball on a cast iron flat. Almost all test specimens that involve an area of contact pose...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 April 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.tpsfwea.t59300079
EISBN: 978-1-62708-323-2
... resistance; this is not an erosion process. When the same process is used with large steel shot for blast cleaning it does remove material by fracture, and this is mostly used for deburring/cleaning castings—it is not considered an erosion process. There are no engineering materials that are immune to...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 April 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.tpsfwea.t59300047
EISBN: 978-1-62708-323-2
... the number, the harder. The D scale takes over after the A scale, and rubber/elastomers with hardnesses on the D scale stop behaving rubbery and they behave more like a bowling ball or hockey puck. Polyurethanes are popular elastomers for many applications, and they can be made by casting a liquid...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 April 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.tpsfwea.t59300301
EISBN: 978-1-62708-323-2
... materials, such as fiberglass, are considered to be plastics, even though they are sometimes made into shapes by the casting of a liquid that sets up by chemical reaction. Fiberglass types of materials are more correctly termed fiber-reinforced plastic, and they fit more correctly into the materials...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 December 2020
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.phtbp.t59310029
EISBN: 978-1-62708-326-3
... of the iron-carbon phase diagram. As noted in Chapter 1 , steels and cast irons contain, in addition to iron and carbon, many other elements that shift the boundaries of the phase fields in the iron-carbon diagram. Some alloying elements such as manganese and nickel are austenite stabilizers and...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 December 2020
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.phtbp.t59310233
EISBN: 978-1-62708-326-3
... Fig. 3 Effects of alloying on gamma loops in iron. (a) Gamma loops in various binary systems of iron. (b) Effect of nickel on Fe-Cr gamma loops. Source: Ref 3 With some restrictions, stainless steels can be shaped and fabricated by conventional processes such as casting, rolling, and...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 December 2020
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.phtbp.t59310001
EISBN: 978-1-62708-326-3
... classified as steels, and alloys containing more than 2 wt% C are classified as cast irons. The solid lines represent conditions when carbon exceeds its solid solubility in ferrite and austenite, at which point carbon above the solubility combines with iron to form of cementite (Fe 3 C). The dashed lines...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 December 2020
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.phtbp.9781627083263
EISBN: 978-1-62708-326-3
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 December 2020
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.phtbp.t59310351
EISBN: 978-1-62708-326-3
... worked alloy or to relieve builtup strains in the cold-worked microstructure. Another basic type of anneal is the homogenization annealing of cast alloys, in which the as-cast microstructure is converted to a more uniform (homogenized) condition. Annealing is a common practice for all types of ferrous...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 December 2020
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.phtbp.t59310127
EISBN: 978-1-62708-326-3
... of steel. Fig. 1 Iron-carbon binary phase diagram with areas of steel annealing temperatures above, below, and in the range of the lower critical temperature ( A 1 ). Actual annealing involves rates of heating and cooling, and critical temperatures during heating ( Ac 1 ) and cooling Sources...