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cast iron

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Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 December 2020
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.phtbp.t59310331
EISBN: 978-1-62708-326-3
... Abstract Cast irons, like steels, are iron-carbon alloys but with higher carbon levels than steels to take advantage of eutectic solidification in the binary iron-carbon system. Like steel, heat treatment of cast iron includes stress relieving, annealing, normalizing, through hardening, and...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 December 2020
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.phtbp.t59310029
EISBN: 978-1-62708-326-3
... designed to prevent formation of equilibrium structures. Thus, the fact that equilibrium may not be achieved, together with the shift of the phase-field boundaries by alloying elements, place limitations on the direct use of the iron-carbon phase diagram. As noted in Chapter 1 , steels and cast irons...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 December 2020
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.phtbp.t59310233
EISBN: 978-1-62708-326-3
... Fig. 3 Effects of alloying on gamma loops in iron. (a) Gamma loops in various binary systems of iron. (b) Effect of nickel on Fe-Cr gamma loops. Source: Ref 3 With some restrictions, stainless steels can be shaped and fabricated by conventional processes such as casting, rolling, and...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 December 2020
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.phtbp.t59310001
EISBN: 978-1-62708-326-3
... steels, and alloys containing more than 2 wt% C are classified as cast irons. The solid lines represent conditions when carbon exceeds its solid solubility in ferrite and austenite, at which point carbon above the solubility combines with iron to form of cementite (Fe 3 C). The dashed lines represent the...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 December 2020
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.phtbp.9781627083263
EISBN: 978-1-62708-326-3
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 December 2020
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.phtbp.t59310351
EISBN: 978-1-62708-326-3
... worked alloy or to relieve builtup strains in the cold-worked microstructure. Another basic type of anneal is the homogenization annealing of cast alloys, in which the as-cast microstructure is converted to a more uniform (homogenized) condition. Annealing is a common practice for all types of ferrous...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 December 2020
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.phtbp.t59310203
EISBN: 978-1-62708-326-3
..., refine grains, reduce gaseous content, and improve homogenization of alloying elements in casting. The purpose of normalizing is to provide a more uniform ferritic-pearlitic microstructure with smaller grains and pearlite with a finer lamellae structure than in annealing. Table 1 Summary of...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 December 2020
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.phtbp.t59310127
EISBN: 978-1-62708-326-3
... of steel. Fig. 1 Iron-carbon binary phase diagram with areas of steel annealing temperatures above, below, and in the range of the lower critical temperature ( A 1 ). Actual annealing involves rates of heating and cooling, and critical temperatures during heating ( Ac 1 ) and cooling Sources...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 December 2020
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.phtbp.t59310163
EISBN: 978-1-62708-326-3
... are also used for the heating and as a quench medium for hardening steel. For low volume or hardening individual pieces, parts may be coated with borax; packed in an alloy box with dry, cast iron chips; or wrapped in 310 stainless steel foil before austenitizing. Each of these options causes some...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 December 2020
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.phtbp.t59310095
EISBN: 978-1-62708-326-3
... less potent effect at high alloy levels) but improves toughness and increases corrosion resistance. Fig. 1 Hardness as a function of carbon content for various microstructures in steels. Crosshatched area shows effect of retained austenite. The hardness of iron-carbon martensite increases with...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 December 2020
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.phtbp.t59310079
EISBN: 978-1-62708-326-3
... martensitic hardening. Thus, undissolved carbides can actively decrease hardenability. This is especially important in high-carbon (0.50 to 1.10%) and alloy carburizing steels, which may contain excess carbides at the austenitizing temperature. Casting and hot reduction practices may also develop localized or...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 December 2020
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.phtbp.t59310055
EISBN: 978-1-62708-326-3
... presence of geometric stress raisers, such as burrs, holes, sharp corners, and the like, also increases the risk of cracking. The structure of the steel prior to hardening (e.g., extruded, cast, forged, or cold formed), can affect the potential for cracking during the quench. For example, high...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 December 2020
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.phtbp.t59310285
EISBN: 978-1-62708-326-3
... dies are used at lower hardnesses, typically approximately 40 to 60 HRC. Some examples are molds for glass and plastic parts; dies for aluminum casting; extrusion, wire drawing, and forging dies; and bending and roll forming tools. Some molds, dies, and metalforming tools come into contact with red...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 May 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.hma.t59250013
EISBN: 978-1-62708-287-7
... basis. Iron ore was mined from the local hillside and delivered to the blast furnace by wagon or even in pouches on horseback. Output from the furnace as cast iron, or from the forge as wrought iron, had to be delivered to the outside world in the same manner. Yearly production of these iron plantations...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 May 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.hma.t59250001
EISBN: 978-1-62708-287-7
... Abstract This chapter provides an account of the pre-Columbian history of metal discovery in America and then reviews the development of metallurgy in the Middle Ages from early wrought iron practices to the use of coke in iron casting. It discusses the influence of the family of Abraham Darby...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 May 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.hma.t59250025
EISBN: 978-1-62708-287-7
... revolution in the last half of the 19th century. A process for making steel directly from blast-furnace cast iron was being developed at two different locations. One was at a small iron mill in Kentucky owned by two brothers by the names of William and John Kelly. It was typical for families to own and...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 May 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.hma.t59250219
EISBN: 978-1-62708-287-7
... minimill industry along with the consolidation of the industry into large corporations. The chapter ends by providing information on novel processes developed for making iron. flanged beams flat products minimills railroad rails steelmaking ironmaking There was little change in the...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 May 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.hma.t59250047
EISBN: 978-1-62708-287-7
... scientists as the Englishmen Sir Humphry Davy and Michael Faraday devoted some studies to iron and steel, but little understanding came from their work. At about the same time (1820–1830) Dietrich Ludwig Gustav Karsten established that wrought iron, steel, and cast iron differed principally in the amount of...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 May 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.hma.t59250059
EISBN: 978-1-62708-287-7
... silver, and with copper and many other metals. Most mineral sources available contained combinations of metals so that alloys were the natural output of many of these ancient metalworking activities. The carbon in cast iron and steel automatically makes them alloys. Wrought iron is the only nonalloyed...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 May 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.hma.t59250153
EISBN: 978-1-62708-287-7
.... Howe joined the Columbia School of Mines in 1897 as the first professor of metallurgy. He taught the new field of metallography and wrote Metallurgical Laboratory Notes (1902) and two more major books, Iron, Steel and other Alloys (1903) and The Metallography of Steel and Cast Iron (1916). He...