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carbon footprint

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Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 June 2023
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.atia.t59340019
EISBN: 978-1-62708-427-7
... ) and the release of perfluorocarbon compounds (PFCs), a potent greenhouse gas (GHG), into the atmosphere ( Ref 2.5 and 2.6 ). The term carbon footprint refers to the amount of greenhouse gases produced directly and indirectly in a production operation. For aluminum, the sum of these gases is expressed...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ahsssta.t53700001
EISBN: 978-1-62708-279-2
...: Ref 1.2 Most of the emissions result from vehicle use (85%), while material production and vehicle manufacturing accounts for the rest (15%). The carbon footprint measures the impact of a vehicle on climate change in tons of CO 2 emitted annually. Table 1.2 lists the average annual carbon...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 June 2023
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.atia.t59340453
EISBN: 978-1-62708-427-7
...) emissions ( Ref 20.2 ). By far, the biggest proportion (90–95%) of the emissions are specific to the upstream processing of bauxite to produce primary aluminum ( Chapter 2 ). There are two major ways to reduce the carbon footprint of the primary industry: (1) reduce the number of amps to make a kilogram...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.aceg.t68410001
EISBN: 978-1-62708-280-8
... with no property reduction Recycling needs only 5% of energy for producing primary metal 100% recyclability has a major impact on environmental protection and the carbon footprint Near net shape Minimum drafts As cast bores Minimum machine stock As cast coarse threads in die casting...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ahsssta.t53700249
EISBN: 978-1-62708-279-2
... be produced on the same equipment currently used. Advanced high-strength steel reduces vehicle mass and leads to improved fuel economy and reduced emissions. End-of-life recycling reduces cost, energy, and raw material depletion. Figure 16.2 shows a comparison of the carbon footprint...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ahsssta.t53700199
EISBN: 978-1-62708-279-2
... criteria. Achieve a 35% mass reduction. Perform cost analysis. Assess life cycle impact. Results of the program presented car companies with ideas of what mass savings, costs, and carbon footprint can be accomplished with these steel grades and processes. Figure 13.4 shows a photo...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.tm.t52320001
EISBN: 978-1-62708-357-7
... . These words and the distinction between them have been defined in various ways. This book distinguishes materials from matter through the concept of microstructure . For example, when asked about carbon, the element with the atomic number 6, scientists who are interested in the essence of matter may...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2010
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.scm.t52870307
EISBN: 978-1-62708-314-0
... often been proposed for trimming of cured composites, but the surfaces become charred by the intense heat and are unacceptable for most structural applications. Carbon fibers are very abrasive and quickly wear out conventional steel cutting blades; therefore, trimming operations should be conducted...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2017
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.sccmpe2.t55090419
EISBN: 978-1-62708-266-2
... response of carbon steels in ethanol (CH 3 CH 2 OH). Ethanol has gained much attention as an alternative fuel in an effort to reduce the carbon footprint; in this manner it is expected that the existing and forthcoming piping infrastructure will help satisfy the future demand for this fuel ( Ref 18.42...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.tm.9781627083577
EISBN: 978-1-62708-357-7
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mfub.t53740103
EISBN: 978-1-62708-308-9
... coefficient will achieve a high strength level after a large amount of deformation. Examples include coppers, brasses, and low-carbon steels that are cold worked to produce higher hardness and strength in the formed part. The value of K increases and n decreases during the course of cold working; thus...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.isceg.t59320305
EISBN: 978-1-62708-332-4
... that the global carbon footprint is reduced only if the electrical energy used for charging the batteries is generated by renewable energy using banks of solar panels, wind power farms, or hydraulic power stations (and not by burning fossil fuels). The extension of driving ranges is achieved by: Lighter...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.isceg.9781627083324
EISBN: 978-1-62708-332-4
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2010
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.scm.t52870489
EISBN: 978-1-62708-314-0
... expensive than E-glass, it has a density, performance and cost between those of E-glass and carbon. Quartz fiber is used in many electrical applications because of its low dielectric constant; however, it is very expensive. Aramid fiber (such as Kevlar) is an organic fiber that has a low density...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 September 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.fahtsc.t51130087
EISBN: 978-1-62708-284-6
... the material with the desired nominal amount of carbon. Decarburization can even occur on carburized steel. Figure 9 shows a metallographic cross section of a piece of steel that is carburized and has quite a bit of retained austenite. Note the dark constituent at the surface (arrows). On carbon steels...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2011
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.jub.t53290279
EISBN: 978-1-62708-306-5
... weld pool by an adjacent base metal may affect the energy input required to locally melt the base metal. When two dissimilar metals of significantly different thermal conductivities are welded together (e.g., plain-carbon steels and copper-base alloys), the welding procedure must provide...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2011
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.jub.t53290207
EISBN: 978-1-62708-306-5
... of the coating with materials being joined needs to be considered. For example, cadmium-plated fasteners should not be used with titanium because of the potential of stress corrosion cracking. 8.2.1 Fastener Materials Fasteners can be made from many materials, but most are made from carbon steel, alloy...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 June 2023
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.atia.t59340375
EISBN: 978-1-62708-427-7
... is still in use today due to recycling and product longevity ( Ref 16.1 ). Thus, aluminum offers low-carbon, sustainable solutions for both retrofitting and new commercial and residential buildings. Aluminum is the second most common metal used in building designs, second only to steel. This chapter...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 June 2023
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.atia.t59340395
EISBN: 978-1-62708-427-7
... and components that go into them, and the associated CO 2 footprint from their manufacture and usage. Chapter 2, “Mining, Refining, Smelting, and Recycling” in this book, chronicles Apple’s investment in the carbon-free aluminum project Elysis. TVs Televisions have evolved considerably since...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 November 2023
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ceeg.t59370145
EISBN: 978-1-62708-447-5
... during long holding times Space needed Smaller footprint, but higher roof structure needed Larger footprint for furnace and emission control but lower roof structure Sources: Ref 5 , 7 7.5 Coreless Induction Furnaces Chapter 6 in this book addresses the features of coreless...