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carbon equivalence

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Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.pht2.t51440207
EISBN: 978-1-62708-262-4
...-ASTM hardness conversions for steel. (c) Average of five readings for each iron. (d) Average of a minimum of five readings for each iron; 100 kg (220 lb) load. Source: Ref 3 Effect of carbon equivalents on surface hardness of induction-hardened gray irons Table 3 Effect of carbon...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 December 2020
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.phtbp.t59310079
EISBN: 978-1-62708-326-3
... the austenite stabilizers for an equivalent increase in hardenability. However, with many of these ferrite stabilizers, the competing process of carbide precipitation in the austenite depletes the austenite of both carbon and alloy addition, thus lowering hardenability. The precipitates also produce grain...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.spsp2.t54410647
EISBN: 978-1-62708-265-5
... This appendix is a compilation of approximate equivalent hardness numbers and tensile strengths for carbon and alloy steels in the annealed, normalized, and quenched-and-tempered conditions. alloy steel carbon steel equivalent hardness number tensile strength Approximate equivalent...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.aub.t61170091
EISBN: 978-1-62708-297-6
... manufacturing technologies. Also known as vermicular graphite cast iron, the CG irons are more widely produced in Europe than in the United States or elsewhere. Graphite Morphology Applications Carbon Equivalent Manganese and Phosphorus Contents Sulfur Content Melt Treatment Elements...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 September 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.fahtsc.t51130503
EISBN: 978-1-62708-284-6
.... , and Saito S. , “ Carbon Equivalents to Assess Cold Cracking Sensitivity and Hardness of Steel Welds ,” Nippon Steel Technical Report 20 , Dec 1982 , p 61 – 73 14. Coe F.R. , Welding Steels without Hydrogen Cracking , The Welding Institute , Abington, U.K. , 1973 15. Yurioka...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.emea.t52240453
EISBN: 978-1-62708-251-8
... both carbon and silicon influence the nature of iron castings, it is necessary to develop an approximation of their impact on solidification. The carbon equivalent (CE) is a parameter that accounts for the influence of composition on microstructure according to: (Eq 24.1) CE = %C...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.aub.t61170021
EISBN: 978-1-62708-297-6
... strength of gray irons as a function of carbon equivalent for 30 mm (1.2 in.) diam bars. Source: Ref 7 Inoculation should not be confused with alloying (the addition of a metal or alloy to another metal or alloy). However, when an alloy addition is made to molten gray iron there is often...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 October 2011
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mnm2.t53060247
EISBN: 978-1-62708-261-7
..., the range of alloying with carbon and silicon varies by the type of iron ( Fig. 10.10 ). As compared with steel, it is apparent that irons have carbon in excess of the maximum solubility of carbon in austenite, which is shown by the lower dashed line. The upper dashed line is the carbon equivalent...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2007
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.smnm.t52140175
EISBN: 978-1-62708-264-8
... types of cast irons. People who make cast irons often refer to the carbon equivalent (CE) of a specific iron. The carbon equivalent is defined as: CE = % C + 1 3 %  Si Fig. 16.4 Carbon and silicon composition ranges for various cast irons and silicon-containing steels...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ffub.t53610585
EISBN: 978-1-62708-303-4
...-induced cracking is the carbon equivalent (CE), an empirical relationship that attempts to reduce the number of significant compositional variables affecting the weldability of steels into a single quantity. Several carbon equivalent relationships have been developed for different classes of steels...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cw.t51820013
EISBN: 978-1-62708-339-3
...–1.0 2 <0.30 ... 0.30–0.60 >0.6 3 ≤0.30 ≤0.25 0.30–0.60 0.60–1.00 4 Composition and carbon equivalent of selected low-alloy steels Table 3 Composition and carbon equivalent of selected low-alloy steels Steel designations Composition, wt% Carbon equivalent...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.msisep.t59220583
EISBN: 978-1-62708-259-4
... microstructure as a function of carbon and silicon content, carbon equivalent (CE = % C + 1/3 (% Si + % P)) and cooling rate, expressed as the casting wall thickness ( R ), which is part of the graphitization constant equation K g = C (Si + log R ). Source: Ref 13 Fig. 17.7 A portion of the Fe-C-Si...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 September 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.fahtsc.t51130551
EISBN: 978-1-62708-284-6
...Abstract Abstract This appendix contains a table listing cross-references of standard SAE carbon and low-alloy steels to selected chemically similar steels. carbon steel low-alloy steel non-AISI steels AISI steels Cross-references of standard SAE carbon steels to selected chemically...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 September 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.fahtsc.t51130255
EISBN: 978-1-62708-284-6
... on cracking propensity. This was designated as the carbon equivalent (C eq ), and it is calculated by: (Eq 4) C e q = C + M n / 5 + M o / 5 + C r / 10 + N i / 10 Figure 9 shows a good correlation between the carbon equivalent and steel cracking. In general, steels...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 1999
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.lmcs.t66560081
EISBN: 978-1-62708-291-4
... be characterized basically by their microstructure—ferrite is still the major constituent, but significant amounts of pearlite are present. These steels typically have carbon contents in the range 0.05 to 0.2% and are used in a condition equivalent to the annealed or normalized condition. A most important...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.aub.t61170100
EISBN: 978-1-62708-297-6
... or silicon are interchangeable to a degree and may be assessed to some extent as a single element effect via the carbon equivalent formula CE = %C + 1/3%Si The common elements in malleable iron are generally controlled within about ±0.05 to ±0.15%. A limiting minimum carbon content is required...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 December 2020
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.phtbp.9781627083263
EISBN: 978-1-62708-326-3
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 1999
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.lmcs.t66560309
EISBN: 978-1-62708-291-4
... are in low-carbon steels, grades that are regarded as being comparatively straightforward to weld. Brazing and braze welding processes involve melting an alloy that has a liquidus temperature below that of the steel but above 450 °C, [1] the molten alloy is made to wet the surfaces of the workpieces...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ssde.t52310265
EISBN: 978-1-62708-286-0
... of the first decade of the 2000s, duplex costs have been roughly one-third less than that of an equivalent corrosion-resisting austenitic stainless. This factored in with strength nearly double that of the equivalent austenitic make them an overwhelmingly superior choice for pulp-and-paper equivalent except...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.msisep.t59220551
EISBN: 978-1-62708-259-4
... in the microstructure ( Ref 4 ). Figure 16.1 presents the Schaeffler diagram with the approximate range of compositions for each family of stainless steels. Martensitic stainless steels may be considered in some aspects equivalent to engineering steels for quenching and tempering (carbon or alloy steels...