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carbon dioxide

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Published: 01 January 2015
Fig. 21.10 Equilibrium percentages of carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide required to maintain various carbon concentrations at 975 °C (1790 °F) in plain carbon and certain low-alloy steels. Source: Ref 21.22 More
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Published: 01 September 2008
Fig. 6 Carbon dioxide content of the atmosphere required to produce certain surface carbon levels at different carburizing times under a given set of carburizing conditions. The dashed lines illustrate alternative times and carbon dioxide contents to produce a single surface carbon content. More
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Published: 01 December 2003
Fig. 2 Release of carbon dioxide from soil-buried films. The materials are SE-1, commercial starch-extended film with 6% starch, 94% polyethylene; Otey, 40% starch, 25% polyethylene, 25% ethylene acrylic acid; PE; commercial polyethylene film; and Parafilm (Royal Purple, Ltd.). Moist soil (100 More
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Published: 01 July 2009
Fig. 26.3 Effect of water concentration in a carbon dioxide-water mixture on the oxidation of beryllium at 650 °C (1200 °F). The total pressure of the tests was kept at 11.2 atm. Source: Phennah et al. 1963 More
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Published: 01 July 2009
Fig. 26.4 Effect of temperature in a carbon dioxide-water mixture containing 600 ppm water on the oxidation of beryllium. The total pressure of the tests was kept at 11.2 atm. Source: Phennah et al. 1963 More
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Published: 30 April 2020
Fig. 7.35 Supercritical extraction data for 1.3 μm WC-Ni treated in carbon dioxide at 75 °C (167 °F) for various times and CO 2 pressures. The trials are for 3 mm (0.1 in.) thick components. More
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Published: 01 December 1999
Fig. 2.1 Temperature and percentage of carbon-dioxide for equilibrium conditions with carbon steels of various carbon contents. Source: Ref 1 More
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 July 2009
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.bcp.t52230485
EISBN: 978-1-62708-298-3
... Abstract This chapter describes the corrosion behavior of beryllium in gaseous atmospheres, including oxygen, nitrogen, carbon dioxide, and carbon monoxide. It also discusses the development of high-temperature corrosion-resistant beryllium alloys. beryllium alloys beryllium corrosion...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1999
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cmp.t66770011
EISBN: 978-1-62708-337-9
... and carbon dioxide, providing oxygen that reacts with alloying elements, particularly manganese, chromium, and silicon. It examines the composition and distribution of oxides produced in different steels and assesses the resulting composition gradients. It describes how these changes influence...
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Published: 01 December 1999
Fig. 1.2 Critical requirements for the oxidation of selected metals with indicated temperatures in atmospheres containing (a) water vapor and hydrogen and (b) carbon dioxide and carbon monoxide. Source: Ref 2 More
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Published: 01 November 2012
Fig. 28 Effect of environmental interaction on rupture life of Ni270 at 800 °C (1470 °F). Longer lives are obtained by preventing cavitation nucleation from carbon dioxide gas formation. This is achieved by decarburizing to eliminate carbon or by coating to prevent oxygen penetration. Source More
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Published: 01 December 2008
Fig. 4 Influence of alloying elements on uniform corrosion rate in 20% sodium chloride solution with carbon dioxide pressure of 20 MPa. Source: Ref 7 More
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Published: 30 April 2020
Fig. 10.34 Supercritical extraction of paraffin wax from injection-molded 0.6 μm alumina treated in compressed carbon dioxide for over 6 h at 85 °C (185 °F) and 28 MPa (4.1 ksi). Source: Chartier et al. ( Ref 20 , 21 ) More
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Published: 01 October 2012
Fig. 8.38 Principle of autoclave curing. The autoclave vessel is pressurized with gas, usually nitrogen or carbon dioxide, at some pressure (e.g., 690 kPa, or 100 psi). Because the laminate inside the vacuum bag is either at atmospheric pressure or has an applied vacuum, there exists More
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Published: 01 January 2000
Fig. 54 Stress-corrosion failure of a type 304 stainless steel heat exchanger tube from carbon dioxide compressor intercooler after exposure to a pressurized chloride-containing (200 ppm) environment at 120 °C (250 °F) (a) Cracks on the external surface. (b) Cracks originating on the external More
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ssde.t52310247
EISBN: 978-1-62708-286-0
... sulfide, carbon dioxide, chlorides, and acidity. This chapter reviews the selection of stainless steels for petroleum applications, including oil country tubular goods (OCTGs), line pipe, offshore platforms, and refinery equipment. Introduction The petroleum industry has driven large segments...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.pnfn.t65900219
EISBN: 978-1-62708-350-8
... sources. As in gas nitriding, the cracked nascent ammonia gas will dissociate at the steel surface and react with the hydrocarbon gas to form both nascent nitrogen and free carbon. The gases will allow carbon dioxide to be generated in relation to the classical water gas reaction: CO 2 + H...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.fibtca.t52430379
EISBN: 978-1-62708-253-2
... and manganese are also found in small amounts in water. Natural water also contains gases such as oxygen, carbon dioxide, and hydrogen sulfide in dissolved form. For trouble-free operation and longer life of the tubes and other high-pressure parts, there are certain parameters of water chemistry...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2007
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.smnm.t52140063
EISBN: 978-1-62708-264-8
... exposed to air. The oxygen in the air will react with the carbon atoms at the surface and form gaseous molecules of carbon dioxide (CO 2 ), which will then drift away from the surface, removing carbon from the left end of the bar. This will cause the %C at the left end of the bar to decrease...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cfap.t69780336
EISBN: 978-1-62708-281-5
... deterioration rates. This definition describes the end result of many tests conducted according to ASTM G 21 ( Ref 6 ) and reported as evidence of biodegradability of plastic materials. Biodegradation is defined, for small molecules, as the complete conversion of the surfactant molecules to carbon dioxide...