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Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.pht2.t51440279
EISBN: 978-1-62708-262-4
... discusses the advantages of boost/diffuse carburizing cycles. A table lists typical carburizing constants and boost/diffusion ratios needed to obtain a 0.80 to 0.90% surface carbon content in a low-alloy, low-carbon steel. A figure illustrates possible carbon penetration profiles from boost/diffuse cycles...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.pht2.t51440009
EISBN: 978-1-62708-262-4
... on transformations and on the classification of steels by carbon content. The chapter ends with a discussion on the effect of time on transformation and on the use of time-temperature-transformation diagrams. allotropy austenite-to-ferrite transformation carbon content commercially pure iron...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1999
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cmp.t66770135
EISBN: 978-1-62708-337-9
... fatigue. It also discusses the effect of quenching methods and addresses the issue of distortion. bending fatigue carburized part case carbon content case depth chemical composition contact fatigue core hardness hardenability microstructure quenching surface hardness tensile properties...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1999
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cmp.t66770037
EISBN: 978-1-62708-337-9
.... bending fatigue carbon content decarburization metallography Decarburization, as the term implies, is a loss of carbon atoms from the surface of the workpiece, thereby producing a surface with a lower carbon content than at some short distance beneath the surface. If carburization promotes a...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1999
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cmp.t66770001
EISBN: 978-1-62708-337-9
... familiarizes readers with the steps involved in determining case depth and verifying that case carbon requirements have been met. case hardening eutectoid carbon content Carbon case hardening, through natural evolution, commercialism, and economics, has become a process for which the possible...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1999
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cmp.t66770051
EISBN: 978-1-62708-337-9
... rejected. alloy composition bending fatigue carbides carbon content contact fatigue cooling rate grain structure surface hardness Free carbides, or pro-eutectoid carbides, are those carbides that form in steel at temperatures above the Ac 1 transformation temperature or are rejected by...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1999
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cmp.t66770077
EISBN: 978-1-62708-337-9
.... It presents detailed images and data plots showing how retained austenite appears and how it influences hardness, tensile properties, residual stresses, fatigue and fracture behaviors, and wear resistance. alloy composition austenite stabilization bending fatigue carbon content contact...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1999
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cmp.t66770171
EISBN: 978-1-62708-337-9
... grades of carburizing steel, particularly those containing over 2% Ni, it can be difficult to realize the specified minimum surface hardness when the surface carbon content is high. In such cases, the retained austenite content at or near the surface exceeds 30% (assuming that softening has not resulted...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1999
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cmp.t66770099
EISBN: 978-1-62708-337-9
..., the likely cause of variations observed, and their effect on mechanical properties and behaviors. The discussions throughout the chapter are aided by the use of images, diagrams, data plots, and tables. carbon content case-hardened steels grain size metallography microcracking...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 1999
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.lmcs.t66560125
EISBN: 978-1-62708-291-4
... and the morphology of manganese sulfide inclusions in castings. carbon content inclusions pearlite proeutectoid cementite proeutectoid ferrite We have now dealt with the structures of annealed and normalized steels containing up to about 0.25% C. The pearlite constituent becomes...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.msisep.t59220519
EISBN: 978-1-62708-259-4
... Abstract This chapter examines the microstructure of special bar quality (or engineering) steels and how it is influenced by carbon content, tempering temperature, and prior austenitic grain size. It explains how some of the changes are difficult to detect and require special etching and/or...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.aub.t61170234
EISBN: 978-1-62708-297-6
... maraging steels typically have high levels of nickel, cobalt, and molybdenum with little carbon content and how that affects their dimensional stability, fracture toughness, weldability, and resistance to stress-corrosion cracking. maraging steel Composition Fracture toughness...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1999
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cmp.t66770011
EISBN: 978-1-62708-337-9
... development of high-temperature transformation products as well as microstructure, hardenability, and carbon content and properties such as fatigue and fracture behaviors, hardness, and wear resistance. It also explains how to manage internal oxidation through material design, process control, and other...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.pht2.t51440027
EISBN: 978-1-62708-262-4
... commonly used hardness testing systems: the Brinell, Rockwell, Vickers, Scleroscope, and various microhardness testers that employ Vickers or Knoop indenters. The effect of carbon content on annealed steels and hardened steels is then discussed. A brief discussion on the concept of the ideal critical...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 September 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.fahtsc.t51130177
EISBN: 978-1-62708-284-6
..., dimensional stability, and generation of quenching and grinding cracks. They also include insufficient case hardness and improper core hardness, influence of surface carbon content and grain size, internal oxidation, structure of carbides, and inclusion of noncarbide. Details on micropitting, macropitting...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.aub.t61170123
EISBN: 978-1-62708-297-6
... Abstract This article discusses the role of alloying in the production and use of carbon and low-alloy steels. It explains how steels are defined and selected based on alloy content and provides composition and property data for a wide range of designations and grades. It describes the effect...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.emea.t52240153
EISBN: 978-1-62708-251-8
...-hand side of the diagram. Since all steels and cast irons have carbon contents less than 6.70%, the remainder of the diagram with 6.7 to 100% C is of no engineering interest. Cementite is a hard and brittle carbide compound with an orthorhombic crystalline structure. Fig. 10.1 The Fe-Fe 3 C...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.spsp2.t54410405
EISBN: 978-1-62708-265-5
... hardness of quenched and tempered steels is a continuous function of steel carbon content and tempering conditions, as has been shown, for example, in Fig. 17.7 in Chapter 17, “Tempering of Steel,” mechanical properties as measured by tensile testing show discontinuities with these parameters. These...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.spsp2.t54410293
EISBN: 978-1-62708-265-5
... precipitation and strong tendency for nitride formation provide the fine particle strengthening of vanadium-containing medium-carbon forging steels. Thus, in addition to vanadium, sufficient nitrogen content is also necessary for maximum strengthening, and electric arc furnace steelmaking, which typically...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 December 2020
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.phtbp.t59310203
EISBN: 978-1-62708-326-3
... adequate strength (hardness) for a given carbon content. In some applications, a mixed microstructure may be adequate, even when a quench cannot produce 100% martensite through the section. Quenching heavy sections of plain medium-carbon steels can still avoid the formation of coarse pearlite, thus...