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calcium

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Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2007
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.smnm.t52140005
EISBN: 978-1-62708-264-8
... dissolved into the water, and the final liquid is said to be a solution of sugar or salt in water. What has happened to the sugar or salt? Consider the salt, because its molecule (sodium chloride [NaCl] for table salt or calcium chloride [CaCl 2 ] for the salt used on icy roads) is more simple than...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.aub.t61170528
EISBN: 978-1-62708-297-6
... in the tin-lead system are the most widely used of all joining materials. Lead and tin are also important alloy constituents in a number of ferrous and nonferrous alloys. Because lead is soft and ductile, it is normally used commercially as lead alloys. Antimony, tin, arsenic, and calcium...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.fibtca.t52430379
EISBN: 978-1-62708-253-2
.... Additionally, there are soluble or dissolved impurities in water. Alkaline salts of calcium, sodium, and magnesium (mainly their bicarbonates) and the neutral salts of these elements such as chlorides and sulfates are found as soluble impurities in water. Mineral salts found in natural water include...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.fibtca.t52430343
EISBN: 978-1-62708-253-2
... acid, with a range of pH from 6.9 to as low as 4.5. Additionally, raw water contains impurities such as dissolved solids comprising compounds of calcium, magnesium, and silica, which precipitate at high temperatures, forming a coating, popularly termed a scale , on the ID side of the boiler tubes...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 July 2009
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.bcp.t52230485
EISBN: 978-1-62708-298-3
... , Institute of Metals Monograph 28, Chapman and Hall Ltd. , London , p 294 – 313 Raine T. , and Robinson J.A. , 1962 . The Corrosion of Beryllium and Alloys of Beryllium with Calcium in Carbon Dioxide , J. Nucl. Mater. , Vol 5 ( No. 3 ), p 341 – 343 10.1016/0022-3115(62)90075-2...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.fibtca.t52430290
EISBN: 978-1-62708-253-2
... of circumferential grooving. In a thermal power plant, the residue arising out of the combustion of solid or liquid fuel is normally termed ash . Ash formed through combustion of coal, named coal ash , contains elements including iron, aluminum, silicon, and calcium along with magnesium, sodium, and potassium...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 July 2009
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.bcp.t52230093
EISBN: 978-1-62708-298-3
... an atomic number of four and a gram atomic weight of 9.013 g. This element lies in the first short period of the periodic table at the top of the group IIA column, known as the alkaline earths and including magnesium, calcium, strontium, barium, and radium. All these elements have an electronic ground state...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.fibtca.t52430204
EISBN: 978-1-62708-253-2
... treatment or all-volatile treatment (AVT), and deposition of various unwanted contaminants. The deposits may consist of metal oxides such as silica and oxides of zinc and nickel, silicates, carbonates and bicarbonates, phosphates, sulfates of metals such as calcium or magnesium in the form of complex...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ssde.t52310155
EISBN: 978-1-62708-286-0
... deoxidants, such as calcium and magnesium, can be used when required. Also note that even if no intentional addition of metallic calcium is made, strong deoxidation with aluminum or titanium can reduce small amounts of calcium from the CaO in the slag, producing measurable calcium content in the metal...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 July 2009
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.bcp.t52230055
EISBN: 978-1-62708-298-3
... ) + Be ( c,l ) This will be impossible at 1 atm (101 kPa) pressure, except for calcium. (The impossibility could become a possibility, if the activity of MO(c) were reduced below unity by solution in a liquid slag or by formation of a stable complex oxide with some other oxide. However...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mgppis.t60400149
EISBN: 978-1-62708-258-7
...), and the light gray constituent is steel. The black constituent is a calcium-aluminum oxide (Ca aluminate). 540× Secondary electrons, on the other hand, are the result of the interaction of primary (beam) electrons with those electrons contained within the atoms in the sample. The primary electrons can...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 July 2009
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.bcp.t52230179
EISBN: 978-1-62708-298-3
... Diagrams of Binary Beryllium Alloys , ASM International Itkin V.P. , Alcock C.B. , Okamoto H. , and Tanner L.E. , 1987 . Beryllium-Calcium Phase Diagram , Phase Diagrams of Binary Beryllium Alloys , ASM International Murray J.L. , 1987 . Beryllium-Titanium Phase...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.fibtca.t52430351
EISBN: 978-1-62708-253-2
... 0.138 0.92 0.473 3.0 0.140 0.91 0.473 3.5 0.141 0.93 0.473 4.0 0.10 0.91 0.463 At ID 0.0620 0.930 0.463 Energy dispersive spectroscopy analysis on the inner surface showed the presence of oxygen, aluminum, silicon, chlorine (as chloride), calcium and potassium...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ems.t53730081
EISBN: 978-1-62708-283-9
... is an aluminosilicate containing Na + , K + , and Ca +2 . Several materials react with water to form solids. Among these are plaster of paris, lime plaster, and Portland cement. Plaster of paris is the hemi-hydrate of calcium sulfate, CaSO 4 ·0.5H 2 O. It is obtained by heating gypsum, CaSO 4 ·4H 2 O...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ttg2.t61120307
EISBN: 978-1-62708-269-3
... Bromine-water solution ... Room Nil Bromine in methyl alcohol 0.05 60 (140) 0.03 (cracking possible) N-butyric acid Undiluted Room Nil Calcium bisulfite Cooking liquor 26 (79) 0.001 Calcium carbonate Saturated Boiling Nil Calcium chloride 5 100 (212) 0.005 10 100 (212...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 July 2009
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.bcp.t52230071
EISBN: 978-1-62708-298-3
... − = n SiO 2 + ( 6 − n ) SiO 4 4 −                            + ( 2 n − 6 ) O 2 − here, n = 3 to 6. The lime fusion process has the disadvantage of reagent consumption by the calcium cation, for example, conversion for precipitation...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.aacppa.t51140039
EISBN: 978-1-62708-335-5
... to engineered castings is problematic. The properties of hypoeutectic aluminum-silicon alloys can be affected by modifying the form of the eutectic. A finer, more fibrous eutectic structure can be obtained by increased solidification rate and by the addition of chemical modifiers. Calcium, sodium, strontium...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.fibtca.t52430325
EISBN: 978-1-62708-253-2
... of an oxide scale on the crack surface. Energy dispersive spectroscopy on the crack surface showed the presence of oxygen, calcium, and phosphorus. Fig. 6.143 SEM fractograph showing crack surface view that indicates presence of ratchet marks and beach marks initiating from OD, 50× Figure 6.144...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.aub.t61170123
EISBN: 978-1-62708-297-6
... ✓ Surface quality x ✓ x x ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ = effective. × = detrimental. (a) Ferrite strengthener. (b) Zirconium improves strength in the hot-rolled condition. (c) Calcium improves fatigue and toughness through inclusion shape control. (d) Nickel improves...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 October 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.faesmch.t51270175
EISBN: 978-1-62708-301-0
.... CH47.2 ). In situ analysis of the particles by EDAX showed that they were of the same material as that of the plunger body, namely, Fe-Cr-Ni alloy. Electron-dispersive x-ray analysis of the corroded regions showed the presence of chlorine, calcium, and potassium. Fig. CH47.1 Cracking and corrosive...