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Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 November 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.uhcf3.t53630055
EISBN: 978-1-62708-270-9
... be classified in different ways. One way is to consider them either as dimensional distortion (growth or shrinkage) or as shape distortion (such as bending, twisting, or buckling). They may also be classified as being either temporary or permanent in nature. This chapter discusses the nature, causes...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2010
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.scm.t52870183
EISBN: 978-1-62708-314-0
... contour. Pressures usually range from 50 to 150 psi (345 to 1035 kPa) with cycle times of 20 to 100 minutes; however, for more massive tools, cycle times of four to six hours are not unusual. Slow pressurization rates are recommended to avoid out-of-plane buckling. Diaphragm materials include Supral...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ahsssta.t53700071
EISBN: 978-1-62708-279-2
... 4.10(a) shows the formation of regular buckling folds in a loaded structure. Energy absorption is compromised if the folding process is disrupted by total buckling caused by improper structure design or material imperfection. Figure 4.10(b) shows the formation of total buckling, which disrupts...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.smfpa.t53500179
EISBN: 978-1-62708-317-1
... path should fall within the hydroforming process control limits shown in Fig. 9.16 . Any deviation from the forming zone process window will lead to part failure (e.g., wrinkling, folding, buckling, and bursting). Both wrinkling and bursting failures are related to limits pertaining to the local state...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2010
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.scm.t52870373
EISBN: 978-1-62708-314-0
...-temperature interlaminar shear strength. BMI, bismaleimide Fig. 14.11 Fatigue properties of aerospace materials. Source: Ref 13 Fig. 14.12 Progressive fatigue damage. Source: Ref 14 Fig. 14.8 Compression buckling modes for unidirectional composites Fig. 14.6 Hot-wet...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ffub.t53610377
EISBN: 978-1-62708-303-4
... and stabilizes and prevents the fibers from buckling in compression. The matrix is also the primary load carrier for interlaminar shear (i.e., shear between the layers) and transverse (90°) tension. Fig. 3 Lamina and laminate lay-ups. Source: Ref 1 Fig. 4 Tensile properties of fiber, matrix...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2010
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.scm.t52870351
EISBN: 978-1-62708-314-0
... or a laminate with a relatively low modulus is going to be tested, an analytical buckling check is required using the procedure given in ASTM D 3410. Since composite materials are sensitive to the ravages of the environment, it is common practice to environmentally condition specimens prior to testing...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.smfpa.t53500211
EISBN: 978-1-62708-317-1
.... It is basically the buckling of the edge section of a roll-formed profile. This defect is usually observed in products with a small thickness or large depth. Thick sheets are less sensitive to edge waviness. Longitudinal bow appears mainly in narrow products due to the excessive longitudinal strain. However...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.tpmpa.t54480243
EISBN: 978-1-62708-318-8
... be determined in tensile and compressive tests. Process Cause of failure Ductility parameter (a) Buckling parameters (b) Splitting Buckling Brake forming x … 6.3 mm (ε in 0.25 in.) (c) … Dimpling x … 51 mm (ε in 2.0 in.) (d) … Beading … … … … Drop hammer x … 13 mm (ε...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 September 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.fahtsc.t51130087
EISBN: 978-1-62708-284-6
... type is deformation. Fig. 1 Example of a sudden deformation event due to buckling There are different ways to categorize deformation. One way is to compare gradual to sudden deformation. Gradual deformation can occur when something is loaded and the load is sustained. Due to the sustained...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cfap.t69780216
EISBN: 978-1-62708-281-5
... view. (c) Front view Fig. 35 Nonlinear effects of cross-sectional collapse on load-displacement behavior Fig. 36 Schematic of collapse of unreinforced cross section Fig. 34 Schematic of generic thermoplastic box-beam bumper Fig. 37 Schematic of buckling of front...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 February 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.chffa.t51040193
EISBN: 978-1-62708-300-3
... heating them to 2200 °F (1200 °C). Next, a billet is placed in the busting dies and upset ( Fig. 16.10a ). It is then transferred to a blocker die and forged ( Fig. 16.10b ) and finally transferred to and forged in a finisher die ( Fig. 16.10c ). During initial forging trials, buckling flow in the blocker...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 February 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.chffa.t51040211
EISBN: 978-1-62708-300-3
... the buckling of the workpiece: (Eq 17.2) R u = ( h 0 d 0 ) In cold upsetting, a ratio of R u ≤ 2.3 can be achieved in one hit if the deformation occurs over a portion of the workpiece. Larger values of R u require several deformation stages. Table 17.3 gives...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 September 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.fahtsc.t51130111
EISBN: 978-1-62708-284-6
... for distortion: yielding, buckling, creep, and residual stresses. Yielding Buckling Creep Residual Stresses Wear may be defined as damage to a solid surface caused by the removal or displacement of material by the mechanical action of a contacting solid, liquid, or gas. It may cause significant...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 October 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.faesmch.t51270182
EISBN: 978-1-62708-301-0
...; neighboring blades, A, B, D, E; blades diametrically opposite, F, G. (b) Sketch showing the location of blades The damaged rotor is shown in Fig. CH50.2 . The blade had fractured at the outer pin location. About nine blades following the fractured blade had suffered severe buckling. The shroud...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ahsssta.t53700215
EISBN: 978-1-62708-279-2
... lead to increased tendencies for splitting, buckling, residual stresses, and springback. Forming AHSS require higher tonnages and this leads to higher loads on dies and tools, resulting in die wear and tool failure. In general, AHSS parts are designed with minimum draw depth and reduced stretch...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2010
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.scm.t52870001
EISBN: 978-1-62708-314-0
... from buckling in compression. The matrix is also the primary load carrier for interlaminar shear (i.e., shear between the layers) and transverse (90°) tension. The relative roles of the fiber and the matrix in detemining mechanical properties are summarized in Table 1.1 . When a unidirectional...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1984
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mpp.t67850334
EISBN: 978-1-62708-260-0
.... Bückle H. : “ Progress in Micro-Indentation Hardness Testing, ” Met. Rev. , vol. 4 , no. 13 , 1959 , pp. 49 – 100 . 10.1179/095066059790421746 45. Brown A. R. G. , and Ineson E. : “ Experimental Survey of Low-Load Hardness Testing Instruments, ” J. Iron Steel Inst. , vol. 169...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mmfi.t69540411
EISBN: 978-1-62708-309-6
.... Source: Ref A8.2 Fig. A8.2 da/dN curves for mill-annealed Ti-6Al-4V plate, 6.4 mm (0.25 in.) thick, with buckling restraint. Source: Ref A8.3 Fig. A8.3 S-N curves for Ti-6Al-4V castings. Source: Ref A8.4 Fig. A8.4 da/dN curves for Ti-6Al-4V castings. Source: Ref...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ahsssta.t53700177
EISBN: 978-1-62708-279-2
... to maintain process control and to minimize buckles on the binder. Double-action press or hydraulic press cushion may be required to achieve the necessary binder forces required to control sheet metal flow into the die cavity. Air cushions or nitrogen cylinders may not provide the required force for setting...