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Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.pht2.t51440125
EISBN: 978-1-62708-262-4
... treatment of alloy steels and of boron on hardenability of alloy steels are then discussed. Procedures for heat treating four specific alloy steels (4037, 4037H; 4140, 4140H; 4340, 4340; and E52100) are subsequently presented. The chapter concludes with a brief account of austempering and martempering...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.spsp2.t54410335
EISBN: 978-1-62708-265-5
...-Bain approach or Jominy end-quench testing. It also explains how hardenability can be improved through the addition of boron, phosphorus, and other alloys. Grossmann-Bain approach hardenability hardness Jominy test martensite A MARTENSITIC MICROSTRUCTURE is the hardest microstructure...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.stg2.t61280025
EISBN: 978-1-62708-267-9
..., including their properties, behaviors, and microstructure. It examines the role of more than 20 alloying elements, including phosphorus (promotes carbide precipitation), boron (improves creep properties), lanthanum (increases hot corrosion resistance), and carbon and tungsten which serve as matrix...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 1999
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.caaa.t67870179
EISBN: 978-1-62708-299-0
... Abstract This chapter discusses the ambient-temperature corrosion characteristics of aluminum metal-matrix composites (MMCs), including composites formed with boron, graphite, silicon carbide, aluminum oxide, and mica. It also discusses the effect of stress-corrosion cracking on graphite...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 December 2020
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.phtbp.t59310095
EISBN: 978-1-62708-326-3
... Abstract This chapter describes the designations of carbon and low-alloy steels and their general characteristics in terms of their response to hardening and mechanical properties. The steels covered are low-carbon steels, higher manganese carbon steels, boron-treated carbon steels, H-steels...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.emea.t52240371
EISBN: 978-1-62708-251-8
... Abstract Alloy steels are alloys of iron with the addition of carbon and one or more of the following elements: manganese, chromium, nickel, molybdenum, niobium, titanium, tungsten, cobalt, copper, vanadium, silicon, aluminum, and boron. Alloy steels exhibit superior mechanical properties...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.emea.t52240395
EISBN: 978-1-62708-251-8
... coatings, and boronizing. surface hardening steel pack carburizing liquid carburizing gas carburizing vacuum carburizing plasma carburizing gas nitriding liquid nitriding carbonitriding hardfacing flame hardening induction hardening aluminizing siliconizing chromizing titanium carbide...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.pht2.t51440097
EISBN: 978-1-62708-262-4
... Abstract This chapter explains the definition of carbon steels and lists the Unified Numbering System designations and the compositions that are universally accepted by steel producers and fabricators. Compositions of higher hardenability carbon steels (higher manganese grades and/or boron...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2010
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.sap.t53000059
EISBN: 978-1-62708-313-3
.... , Microstructure of a Boron Containing High Purity Nickel-Based Alloy 690 , Mater. Sci. Eng. A , Vol 281 , 2000 , p 96 – 103 10.1016/S0921-5093(99)00741-8 19. Felix P. , in Deposition and Corrosion in Gas Turbines , Hart A.B. and Culter J.B. , Ed., Applied Science , London , 1972...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2010
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.sap.t53000111
EISBN: 978-1-62708-313-3
..., although some softer alloys or alloys in an annealed state may be machined with difficulty using highspeed steel. Cubic boron nitride tools are commonly used for the harder alloys. The anisotropy of single-crystal alloys can complicate machining, because the shear stress will be very high along certain...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.aub.t61170337
EISBN: 978-1-62708-297-6
... to the discovery that small (~0.1 wt%) boron additions not only eliminated the brittle behavior of Ni 3 Al, but converted the material to a highly malleable form exhibiting tensile ductility as high as 50% at room temperature. The beneficial effect of boron is, however, dependent on stoichiometry, and boron...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 December 2020
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.phtbp.t59310079
EISBN: 978-1-62708-326-3
... content is by increasing the manganese content. Chromium and molybdenum also increase hardenability and are among the most economical elements per unit of increased hardenability. Nickel is the most expensive per unit but is warranted when toughness is a primary consideration. Boron can considerably...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 July 2009
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.bcp.t52230145
EISBN: 978-1-62708-298-3
... communication Jankowski A.F. , Wall M.A. , and Nieh T.G. , 2003 . Crystallization of Beryllium-Boron Metallic Glasses , J. Non-Cryst. Solids , Vol 317 , p 129 – 136 10.1016/S0022-3093(02)01993-2 Jankowski A.F. , Wall M.A. , Van Buuren A.W. , Nieh T.G...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2010
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.scm.t52870537
EISBN: 978-1-62708-314-0
... fiber lengths are a few micrometers to several hundred micrometers but are broken up during processing so that their aspect ratios (length/diameter) range from three to about 100. Continuous-fiber reinforcements include graphite, SiC, boron, aluminum oxide (Al 2 O 3 ), and refractory metal wires...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.aub.t61170100
EISBN: 978-1-62708-297-6
... composition and the restricted use of alloys. The chemical composition of malleable iron generally conforms to the ranges given in Table 1 . Small amounts of chromium (0.01 to 0.03%), boron (0.0020%), copper (~1.0%), nickel (0.5 to 0.8%), and molybdenum (0.35 to 0.5%) are also sometimes present. Table 2...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 October 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.lmub.t53550457
EISBN: 978-1-62708-307-2
... nonferrous alloy, and the reinforcement consists of high-performance carbon, metallic, or ceramic additions. Reinforcements, either continuous or discontinuous, may constitute from 10 to 70 vol% of the composite. Continuous fiber or filament (f) reinforcements include graphite, silicon carbide (SiC), boron...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.aacppa.t51140039
EISBN: 978-1-62708-335-5
.... Backerud L. and Shao Y. , Grain Refining Mechanisms in Aluminum as a Result of Additions of Titanium and Boron, Part I , Aluminium , Vol 67 ( No. 7–8 ), July-Aug 1991 , p 780 – 785 6. Backerud L. , Johnsson M. , and Gustafson P. , Grain Refining Mechanisms...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.emea.t52240607
EISBN: 978-1-62708-251-8
... additions, as depicted in Fig. 33.1 . Reinforcements, characterized as either continuous or discontinuous, may constitute from 10 to 70 vol% of the composite. Continuous fiber reinforcements include graphite, silicon carbide (SiC), boron, aluminum oxide (Al 2 O 3 ), and refractory metal wires. Continuous...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.aub.t61170123
EISBN: 978-1-62708-297-6
... hardenability in conjunction with chromium. (e) Additions of vanadium up to 0.05% increase hardenability; larger additions result in carbide formation which is detrimental to hardenability. (f) Titanium is effective because it protects boron from nitrogen in boron-treated steels. If carbides form...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.smfpa.t53500133
EISBN: 978-1-62708-317-1
... is a nonisothermal forming process for sheet metals, where forming and quenching take place in the same forming step” ( Ref 7.2 ). This process takes advantage of low flow stress of boron-alloyed steel (22MnB5) in austenitic phase at elevated temperature and allows the manufacturing of parts with ultrahigh strength...