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body-centered cubic systems

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Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.emea.t52240003
EISBN: 978-1-62708-251-8
... structure, providing information on space lattices and crystal systems, hexagonal close-packed systems, and face-centered and body-centered cubic systems. The chapter then covers slip systems and closes with a brief section on allotropic transformations that occur at a constant temperature during either...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.emea.t52240625
EISBN: 978-1-62708-251-8
... Abstract This appendix explains how to calculate atomic packing factors, lattice parameters, and coordination numbers for cubic crystal structures, including simple, body-centered, and face-centered cubic systems. It also addresses hexagonal close-packed systems. atomic packing factors...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 December 2020
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.phtbp.t59310001
EISBN: 978-1-62708-326-3
... (fcc) crystal lattice ( Fig. 3 ) Hexagonal close-packed (hcp) crystal lattice ( Fig. 4 ) Body-centered cubic (bcc) crystal lattice ( Fig. 5 ) Table 1 Characteristics of the seven different crystal systems Crystal system Edge length Interaxial angle Triclinic a ≠ b ≠ c α ≠ β...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.emea.t52240221
EISBN: 978-1-62708-251-8
... of these failure modes. Some body-centered cubic and hexagonal close-packed metals, and steels in particular, exhibit a ductile-to-brittle transition when loaded under impact and the chapter describes the use of notched bar impact testing to determine the temperature at which a normally ductile...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cw.t51820077
EISBN: 978-1-62708-339-3
... Abstract Ferritic stainless steels are essentially iron-chromium alloys with body-centered cubic crystal structures. Chromium content is usually in the range of 11 to 30%. The primary advantage of the ferritic stainless steels, and in particular the high-chromium, high-molybdenum grades, is...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cw.t51820043
EISBN: 978-1-62708-339-3
... Abstract Austenitic stainless steels exhibit a single-phase, face-centered cubic structure that is maintained over a wide range of temperatures. This chapter provides a basic understanding of grade designations, properties, and welding considerations of austenitic stainless steels. It also...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.emea.t52240153
EISBN: 978-1-62708-251-8
... cooling from its melting point of 1540 °C (2800 °F), it assumes a body-centered cubic (bcc) structure designated as δ-ferrite. On further cooling between 1395 and 912 °C (2541 and 1674 °F), it has a face-centered cubic (fcc) structure called austenite, designated as γ. Below 912 °C (1674 °F), it again has...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 July 2009
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.bcp.t52230131
EISBN: 978-1-62708-298-3
...-temperature oxidation-resistant beryllides are listed in Table 11.1 . Table 11.1 High-temperature oxidation-resistant beryllides     Composition, wt% Be Melting point, °C X-ray density, g/mL Crystal structure Nb-Be NbBe 12 53.8 1690 2.92 Body-centered tetragonal Nb 2 Be 19...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 July 2009
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.bcp.t52230163
EISBN: 978-1-62708-298-3
..., or body-centered cubic, phase, of beryllium Development of alloys with a plastic matrix Alloying additions that are directed at the elimination of a low-melting eutectic, which leads to hot shortness, by bonding of aluminum or silicon, the main components of this low-melting eutectic, into...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.msisep.t59220101
EISBN: 978-1-62708-259-4
... grouped under the name of thermomechanical treatments. Producing phase transformations between the two main crystal structures of iron, body-centered cubic (BCC) and face-centered cubic (FCC) (presented in Chapter 1 ) and forming structures other than equilibrium structures (see Chapter 9...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.pdub.t53420363
EISBN: 978-1-62708-310-2
.... Contributions from covalent bonding are also present in the hcp metals zinc and cadmium, with c / a ratios greater than 1.85. This lowers their packing density to approximately 65%, considerably less than the 74% of the ideal hcp structure. The body-centered cubic (bcc) system is shown in Fig. A.13 . The...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.spsp2.t54410113
EISBN: 978-1-62708-265-5
... austenite of the other austenite grain. Atoms in such an interface would easily move from face-centered cubic (fcc) packing to the body-centered cubic (bcc) structure, producing a boundary with a high degree of mobility. At high transformation temperatures and low undercooling, the incoherent boundary would...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mgppis.t60400109
EISBN: 978-1-62708-258-7
...-center or not properly focused, the objective will not function the way it is designed to function and the metallographer will not obtain the full benefit of the high-resolution objective. Figure 5.32 shows an example of how an improperly adjusted illumination system can affect microstructural image...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.pdub.t53420143
EISBN: 978-1-62708-310-2
... 1540 °C (2800 °F), it assumes a body-centered cubic (bcc) structure designated as δ-ferrite. On further cooling between 1395 and 910 °C (2541 and 1673 °F), it has a face-centered cubic (fcc) structure called austenite, designated as γ. Below 910 °C (1673 °F), it again has a bcc crystal structure called...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 July 2009
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.bcp.t52230179
EISBN: 978-1-62708-298-3
...). Fig. 15.6 Binary phase diagram of beryllium-calcium. Source: Itkin et al. 1987 Figure 15.7 . Cobalt is one of the elements that stabilizes body centered cubic beryllium, with a maximum solubility of 6 at.% or 28 wt% Co. The maximum solubility of cobalt in hexagonal beryllium is...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.pht2.t51440009
EISBN: 978-1-62708-262-4
... formed (point a, Fig. 1 ). This structure, in terms of atom arrangement, is known as a body-centered cubic lattice (bcc), shown in Fig. 2(a) . This lattice has nine atoms—one at each corner and one in the center. Fig. 2 Arrangement of atoms in the two crystalline structures of pure iron. (a...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.pdub.t53420263
EISBN: 978-1-62708-310-2
... the gas phase or a simple metallic liquid and solid solutions, where components can mix on any spatial position that is available to the phase. For example, in a simple body-centered cubic phase, any of the components could occupy any of the atomic sites that define the cubic structure, as shown in...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2007
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.pmsspmp.t52000005
EISBN: 978-1-62708-312-6
... crystal structure of an alloy, in turn, is determined by its chemistry and thermal history. Structurally, pure iron exists at room temperature in a body-centered cubic (ferritic) structure. As it is heated above 910 °C (1670 °F), it undergoes transformation into a face-centered cubic (fcc) (austenitic...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 October 2011
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mnm2.t53060197
EISBN: 978-1-62708-261-7
... is an allotropic element, which means that iron atoms change their crystal structure at some specific temperatures known as transformation temperatures (see Chapter 2, “Structure of Metals and Alloys,” in this book). One crystal form of iron is a body-centered cubic (bcc) lattice that is stable...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 July 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.fec.t65940183
EISBN: 978-1-62708-302-7
... iron-water Pourbaix diagram. It then explains how anodic polarization is extremely sensitive to the environment and, as a result, a reasonably complete curve for a given metal-environment system usually can only be inferred. It goes on to describe how such curves are constructed, demonstrating the...