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blast furnace technology

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Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.msisep.t59220009
EISBN: 978-1-62708-259-4
... Abstract This chapter describes the basic steps in the steelmaking process. It explains how iron is reduced from ore in the liquid state through the classic blast furnace process and in the solid state by direct reduction. It discusses the conversion of iron to steel and the technological...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 May 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.hma.t59250013
EISBN: 978-1-62708-287-7
... in the blast furnace. This was a matter not of backward technology but of availability. Massive deposits of bituminous coal lay in the Pittsburgh area, across the mountains from where the iron furnaces were built in southeastern Pennsylvania. Even the anthracite coal discovered in northeastern Pennsylvania...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 October 2011
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mnm2.t53060073
EISBN: 978-1-62708-261-7
... sulfide ore generally contains appreciable quantities of silver, and because of the potential for silver recovery, lead smelting is currently practiced under very controlled conditions. A schematic of a lead blast furnace for smelting the galena ores is illustrated in Fig. 4.2 . Basically...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.spsp2.t54410009
EISBN: 978-1-62708-265-5
..., blast furnaces that produced cast iron in large quantities for intensive industrial development in the eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries were developed ( Ref 2.9 – 2.11 ). Iron ore was converted by reduction with blasts of air, charcoal, and limestone to produce cast iron in small ingots...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 May 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.hma.t59250025
EISBN: 978-1-62708-287-7
.... This not only greatly increased production but also exhibited the improved blast-furnace engineering technology and maintenance. The blast furnace was forced to keep up with the ravenous appetite of the newly built Bessemer converters. Carnegie built a second Lucy furnace in the late 1870s and followed...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 May 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.hma.t59250001
EISBN: 978-1-62708-287-7
... the technology and economics of basic ironmaking. One of their colleagues, Henry Cort, developed the “puddling process” in 1784 to convert cast iron from the blast furnace into wrought iron. This puddling technique was the most important development in metals for the coming 19th century. The process...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 May 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.hma.t59250187
EISBN: 978-1-62708-287-7
..., and this steel mill would be among the largest in the world. By 1911, the city, named Gary in honor of the chairman, had a hotel, churches, a hospital, and homes for a population of nearly 20,000. The steel plant housed eight blast furnaces, 47 open-hearth furnaces, hundreds of coke ovens, and rolling mills...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mfub.t53740001
EISBN: 978-1-62708-308-9
... Abstract This chapter discusses the processes, procedures, and equipment used in the production of iron, steel, aluminum, and titanium alloys. It describes the design and operation of melting and refining furnaces, including blast furnaces, basic oxygen and electric arc furnaces, vacuum...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 May 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.hma.t59250219
EISBN: 978-1-62708-287-7
... alloy steels. During the 1960s, big steel companies were changing production methods, moving to the new basic oxygen converter that removed carbon from the molten metal delivered from blast furnaces. This reduced the scrap market to very low levels with low prices, giving minimills further advantage...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 May 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.hma.t59250207
EISBN: 978-1-62708-287-7
... industry was trying to upgrade and expand capacity. But the adoption of modern technology was slow, as was evident when Bethlehem built a new open hearth shop in 1958 at Sparrows Point for $200 million. Four years earlier, a small steel company in Michigan had installed the first basic oxygen furnace (BOF...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ahsssta.t53700249
EISBN: 978-1-62708-279-2
.... Source: AUTO STEEL, Steel Market Development Institute Emissions produced by the steel industry result mostly from the chemical reaction to reduce the iron ore to crude iron in the blast furnace. This is also the process that consumes the most energy. Since 1975, energy efficiency methods have led...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2011
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.jub.t53290165
EISBN: 978-1-62708-306-5
... or burn. References 7.1 Oyama T. and Mizuhara H. , Furnace Brazing , Welding, Brazing, and Soldering , Vol 6 , ASM Handbook , ASM International , 1993 10.31399/asm.hb.v06.a0001386 7.2 Schwartz M.M. , Fundamentals of Brazing...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cub.t66910363
EISBN: 978-1-62708-250-1
... and Surface Finishers Society , 1986 • Smith L.M. , Ed., Generic Coating Types: An Introduction to Industrial Maintenance Coating Materials , Technology Publishing Company , 1996 • Stern K.H. , Ed., Metallurgical and Ceramic Protective Coatings , Chapman & Hall , 1996...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.stg2.t61280079
EISBN: 978-1-62708-267-9
... structures have been produced by promoting unidirectional heat flow within the furnace during the solidification cycle. Substantial property improvements have resulted for many alloys. A logical extension of CG technology is the production of SC hot section aircraft gas turbine components. Directional...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mfub.t53740047
EISBN: 978-1-62708-308-9
... on the molten metal that stirs it, assuring excellent mixing in the metal bath. The two types of induction furnaces are channel furnaces and coreless furnaces. Cupolas are vertical shaft furnaces used for melting cast iron. Although similar in principle to blast furnaces, they are not miniature blast...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.tpmpa.t54480207
EISBN: 978-1-62708-318-8
... directions) must be controlled. The requirements of higher working pressures, special heating and furnace atmosphere controls, and removal of contaminated surface material created the need for equipment ( Ref 9.14 ) and procedures specifically designed for titanium ( Ref 9.15 – 9.20 ). Mill processing...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.secwr.t68350087
EISBN: 978-1-62708-315-7
... K.G. , Surface Hardening by Flame and Induction, Chapter 5 , Surface Engineering for Wear Resistance , Prentice Hall , 1988 , p 120 – 137 3. Cooper K.P. , Laser Surface Processing , Friction, Lubrication, and Wear Technology , Vol 18 , ASM Handbook , ASM International , 1992...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 May 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.hma.t59250073
EISBN: 978-1-62708-287-7
...; it was worked into bars and cut into pieces. The small pieces were placed in clay crucibles to which wood chips were added. After sealing, the crucibles were heated in small furnaces to a high temperature by the use of an air blast from skin bellows. Melting occurred as the iron absorbed carbon from the wood...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.stg2.t61280149
EISBN: 978-1-62708-267-9
... or weld repair of an individual component. While there is a continuing trend to standardization of specifications, unique specification requirements could be encountered by designers planning to use certain superalloys. This situation may be characteristic of the more technologically sophisticated alloys...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 July 2009
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.bcp.t52230401
EISBN: 978-1-62708-298-3
... , ASM International Banaim P. , Zalkind S. , Eden S. , and Abramov E. , 1988 . Joining of Beryllium by Braze Welding Technique: Preliminary Results , Proc. of Third IEA International Workshop on Beryllium Technology for Fusion, Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute...