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bismuth binary system

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Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.pdub.t53420289
EISBN: 978-1-62708-310-2
... processing technology. In the area of performance, phase diagrams give an indication of which phases are thermodynamically stable in an alloy and can be expected to be present over a long time when the part is subjected to a particular temperature (e.g., in an automotive exhaust system). Phase diagrams...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 April 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ps.t62440049
EISBN: 978-1-62708-352-2
... range and a noticeable impairment to wetting and spreading behavior. In addition, there is a range of low-melting-point ternary solders based on Bi-Pb-Sn alloys in which bismuth is present in high concentrations. The liquidus surface of this alloy system is given in Fig. 2.16 . Small quantities...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.pdub.t53420001
EISBN: 978-1-62708-310-2
... changes are ignored. Because the system considered so far contains only one pure metal, it is known as a unary system. 1.2 Binary Systems Now consider the addition of a second metal, for example, an alloy of nickel and copper. The phase diagram for this system is shown in Fig. 1.1 . This is known...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.aub.t61170457
EISBN: 978-1-62708-297-6
... (C70100 to C72950) inhabit the copper-rich end of the binary Cu-Ni system that also includes the Monel (67Ni-30Cu) alloys; furthermore their properties are similar to those of nickel-rich alloys. Copper nickels are among the most corrosion resistant and thermally stable of all the copper alloys...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.tpmpa.t54480031
EISBN: 978-1-62708-318-8
... level and is said to be stable. However, some special diagrams do show intermediate and metastable phases. Most phase diagrams involve only two (binary) or three (ternary) components. Compositions in binary systems are frequently shown in both weight and atomic percents, and temperatures are usually...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.aub.t61170351
EISBN: 978-1-62708-297-6
... shrinkage porosity. Figure 5 shows the complete phase diagram of the binary aluminum-silicon system. This is a simple eutectic system with limited terminal solubility and is the basis for the 4 xx.x alloys. Metallographic structures of the pure components and of several intermediate compositions show...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 October 2011
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mnm2.t53060315
EISBN: 978-1-62708-261-7
... (117 °F), are called fusible alloys . One application is in sprinkler system triggering devices. A nuclear research application takes advantage of a combination of properties: high density gives bismuth excellent shielding properties for blocking the passage of gamma rays, while its low neutron cross...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.pb.t51230047
EISBN: 978-1-62708-351-5
... of these alloys. The three principal families of gold-bearing alloy brazes are considered briefly in turn. 2.1.8.1 Gold-Copper The gold-copper binary alloy system, which also provides the basis for many of the brazes used in jewelry, is characterized by a continuous solid solution between the two...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ems.t53730011
EISBN: 978-1-62708-283-9
.... A physical system may contain more than one phase. A glass of root beer with ice contains three phases: solid ice, a water-based solution, and bubbles of carbon dioxide. A material may contain more than one solid phase, each with a different crystal structure, or one or more mutually insoluble liquid phases...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.aacppa.t51140007
EISBN: 978-1-62708-335-5
.... This chapter provides information on specifications and widely used designation systems and alloy nomenclature for aluminum casting alloys. It describes the composition of seven basic families of aluminum casting alloys: aluminum-copper, aluminum-silicon-copper, aluminum-silicon, aluminum-silicon-magnesium...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 April 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ps.t62440189
EISBN: 978-1-62708-352-2
...). A complete liquidus projection of the ternary system is given in Fig. 2.14 . Substitution of 0.9% Sn in the binary Ag-96.5Sn alloy by copper reduces the eutectic temperature by almost 4 °C (7 °F). Even this small temperature reduction can be significant for electronic assemblies with components tailored...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.isceg.t59320031
EISBN: 978-1-62708-332-4
... formed in typical cast steel and cast iron, their properties, performance attributes, and applications. The iron-iron carbide phase diagram ( Fig. 4.3 ) illustrates the structures formed by the Fe-C binary system at different temperatures. This diagram is used to study the effects of alloying...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 October 2011
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mnm2.t53060013
EISBN: 978-1-62708-261-7
... of equilibrium phase diagrams, the role of enthalpy and Gibb’s free energy in chemical reactions, and a method for determining phase compositions along the solidus and liquidus lines. atomic diffusion body-centered cubic systems crystal defects equilibrium phase diagram face-centered cubic systems...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.pdub.t53420117
EISBN: 978-1-62708-310-2
... and for peritectic transformations in the cobalt-tin, gold-bismuth, and chromium-antimony systems. In contrast, two maxima of the thickness of the peritectically-formed CuCd 3 were observed in the copper-cadmium system, as shown in Fig. 6.12 . The first maximum is attributed to the contribution of grain-boundary...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.tpmpa.t54480051
EISBN: 978-1-62708-318-8
... of a beta-stabilized system. Important features in this diagram include: The titanium beta phase is isomorphous with niobium; both have the bcc crystal structure. As a result, this type of system is referred to as beta isomorphous. Other binary systems of this type are titanium-molybdenum...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 April 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ps.t62440145
EISBN: 978-1-62708-352-2
... these quaternary systems as a function of gold concentration are given in Fig. 4.3 and 4.4 . The effect of gold on the solidus temperature of common, binary tin-base eutectic solders Table 4.3 The effect of gold on the solidus temperature of common, binary tin-base eutectic solders Solder...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.isceg.9781627083324
EISBN: 978-1-62708-332-4
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.aub.9781627082976
EISBN: 978-1-62708-297-6
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 December 2020
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.phtbp.t59310351
EISBN: 978-1-62708-326-3
... diffusion coefficients. The essential attribute of a PH alloy system is that the solid-solubility limit of the solute must increase with increasing temperature, as previously illustrated in the Al-Cu system ( Fig. 8 ). Although this condition is met by most of the binary aluminum alloy systems, many...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.emea.t52240597
EISBN: 978-1-62708-251-8
... temperature. They are used primarily as alloying elements in other precious metals. 32.9 Fusible Alloys Fusible, or low-melting-point, alloys include binary, ternary, quaternary, and quinary alloys containing bismuth, lead, tin, cadmium, and indium. The term fusible alloy refers to any of the more...