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billets

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Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ex2.t69980323
EISBN: 978-1-62708-342-3
... presses and auxiliary equipment for tube extrusion, induction furnaces for billet processing, handling systems for copper and aluminum alloy products, extrusion cooling systems, and age-hardening ovens. Next, the chapter describes the principles and applications of equipment for the production of aluminum...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ex2.t69980141
EISBN: 978-1-62708-342-3
... continuous cast microstructure of aluminum and copper alloys. The discussion provides information on billet and grain segregation and defects in continuous casting. The chapter then discusses the processes involved in the deformation of pure metals and alloys at room temperature. Next, it describes the...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ex2.t69980059
EISBN: 978-1-62708-342-3
... passing through the billet to produce the internal contour and a die for the external contour. Rod extrusion is the extrusion of wire, strip, sections, bars, and hollow sections through a die. Tube extrusion is the extrusion of seamless tubes as well as seamless hollow sections over a mandrel...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ex2.t69980001
EISBN: 978-1-62708-342-3
... , 1966 [Wie 70]: Wieland H. , Die Geschichte des Strangpressens im Blicke der Wieland-werke (The History of Extrusion from the Viewpoint of Wielandwerke ), Wielandwerke AG, Ulm , Germany , 1970 THE EXTRUSION OF METALS, in which a billet, usually round, is pressed by a stem at...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ex2.9781627083423
EISBN: 978-1-62708-342-3
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ex2.t69980195
EISBN: 978-1-62708-342-3
... properties and are consequently used as the base material for bearing metals. Very little friction occurs in direct extrusion between the billet surface and the container inner wall because of these good bearing properties. Tin-base extruded alloys, therefore, tend to flow largely according to flow pattern A...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ex2.t69980417
EISBN: 978-1-62708-342-3
... includes extrusion dies, porthole and bridge dies, as well as mandrels. These extrusion tools come into direct contact with the billet material heated to the deformation temperature. The second group includes extrusion tooling that does not have any shape-producing function but, at the same time, is...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ex2.t69980551
EISBN: 978-1-62708-342-3
... cutting of the extrusion billets. Weekly detailed planning meetings by the press crew establish individual controls testing of the quality characteristics (e.g., shape, roughness, surface quality, weld quality) during contract processing, up to the point of section packing. Regular monitoring of...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ex2.t69980009
EISBN: 978-1-62708-342-3
... aluminum alloys with good welding properties and working temperatures that can be withstood by the tool materials also enable the billet to be divided into several metal streams, and then re-welded in the shape-forming region of the extrusion die to form tubes and hollow sections. The production of hollow...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ex2.t69980567
EISBN: 978-1-62708-342-3
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ex2.t69980565
EISBN: 978-1-62708-342-3
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 February 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.chffa.t51040151
EISBN: 978-1-62708-300-3
... Abstract Separation of billets by shearing avoids material loss and is considerably faster than sawing or cutting. This chapter discusses the billet shearing process, the characteristics of sheared surfaces, and the effect of various operating parameters on surface quality. It also includes...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 February 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.chffa.t51040141
EISBN: 978-1-62708-300-3
... Abstract Prior to forging, it is often necessary to preform billet stock to achieve adequate material distribution. This chapter discusses the equipment used for such operations, including transverse rolling machines, electric upsetters, ring-rolling mills, horizontal presses, and rotary...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 February 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.chffa.t51040185
EISBN: 978-1-62708-300-3
... Abstract This chapter presents a relatively simple method for estimating forging loads and flow stresses. The method uses the slab analysis technique and accounts for material properties, friction and heat transfer, press ram speed, forging geometry, and billet and die temperatures. The chapter...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 February 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.chffa.t51040211
EISBN: 978-1-62708-300-3
... Abstract This chapter discusses the process of cold forging and its effect on various materials. It describes billet preparation and lubrication procedures, cold upsetting techniques, and the use of slab analysis for estimating cold forging loads. It likewise describes extrusion processes...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 February 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.chffa.t51040295
EISBN: 978-1-62708-300-3
... tolerances [ Dahl et al., 1998 , and Dahl et al., 1999 ]. Complex precision-forged parts are almost exclusively produced in closed dies. Therefore, the dies have to withstand high contact pressures well above the flow stress of the billet material at the forging temperature. Also, the amount of surface...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 February 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.chffa.t51040159
EISBN: 978-1-62708-300-3
... of Pressed Contacts, ” Appl. Energy , Vol. 22 , 1986 , p 31 – 84 . 10.1016/0306-2619(86)90073-5 In impression-die forging, two or more dies are moved toward each other to form a metal billet that has a relatively simple geometry to obtain a more complex shape. Usually, the billet is...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 February 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.chffa.t51040007
EISBN: 978-1-62708-300-3
... , 1989 , p 15 - 8 . In forging, an initially simple part—a billet, for example—is plastically deformed between two tools (or dies) to obtain the desired final configuration. Thus, a simple part geometry is transformed into a complex one, whereby the tools “store” the desired geometry and impart...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 February 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.chffa.t51040067
EISBN: 978-1-62708-300-3
... operation (i.e., process parameters such as interface pressure and surface expansion) and the parameters associated with the billet itself (i.e., hardness). For example, upsetting to small diameter-to-height ratios does not require the same lubricant performance (lubricity) as backward extrusion processes...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 February 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.chffa.9781627083003
EISBN: 978-1-62708-300-3