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billet configurations

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Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.aet.t68260087
EISBN: 978-1-62708-336-2
... determine the dimensions of the die bearing to control the metal flow: The distance of the opening from the center of the billet The section thickness at that location The pocket shape and size Fig. 7 Solid flat-face die configuration In the direct extrusion process...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 February 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.chffa.t51040141
EISBN: 978-1-62708-300-3
... operation and (b) design and optimize the configuration of the die segments. Figure 12.6 shows, as an example, two roll passes, simulated by the commercial software DEFORM 3-D [ SFTC, 2003 ]. The desired shape is produced by rolling the heated billet between two rotating dies having appropriately profiled...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 February 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.chffa.t51040159
EISBN: 978-1-62708-300-3
... Contacts, ” Appl. Energy , Vol. 22 , 1986 , p 31 – 84 . 10.1016/0306-2619(86)90073-5 In impression-die forging, two or more dies are moved toward each other to form a metal billet that has a relatively simple geometry to obtain a more complex shape. Usually, the billet is heated...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.tpmpa.t54480207
EISBN: 978-1-62708-318-8
.... extrusion forging rolling wrought titanium TITANIUM AND TITANIUM ALLOYS are fabricated using many methods to produce mill products, including billet, bar, rod, wire, plate, sheet, strip, extrusions, pipe, and tubing ( Ref 9.1 – 9.13 ). Most integrated titanium mills have primary working equipment...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 April 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.imub.t53720365
EISBN: 978-1-62708-305-8
... Abstract In forgings of both ferrous and nonferrous metals, the flaws that most often occur are caused by conditions that exist in the ingot, by subsequent hot working of the ingot or the billet, and by hot or cold working during forging. The inspection methods most commonly used to detect...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ex2.t69980323
EISBN: 978-1-62708-342-3
... the presses and auxiliary equipment for tube extrusion, induction furnaces for billet processing, handling systems for copper and aluminum alloy products, extrusion cooling systems, and age-hardening ovens. Next, the chapter describes the principles and applications of equipment for the production of aluminum...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mfub.t53740103
EISBN: 978-1-62708-308-9
... shape (cylinder or round-cornered square billet) into the more complex shape of the final forging. Generally, spherical and blocklike shapes are the easiest to forge in impression or closed dies. Parts with long, thin sections or projections (webs and ribs) are more difficult to forge because they have...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 July 2009
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.bcp.t52230295
EISBN: 978-1-62708-298-3
... Abstract The vast majority of beryllium products are manufactured from blocks, forms, or billets of compacted powder that are machined or worked into shape. This chapter describes the metalworking processes used, including rolling, forming, forging, extrusion, drawing, and spinning. It covers...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 February 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.chffa.t51040007
EISBN: 978-1-62708-300-3
... , 1989 , p 15 - 8 . In forging, an initially simple part—a billet, for example—is plastically deformed between two tools (or dies) to obtain the desired final configuration. Thus, a simple part geometry is transformed into a complex one, whereby the tools “store” the desired geometry and impart...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.aet.t68260029
EISBN: 978-1-62708-336-2
... simultaneously right from the start of extrusion. Some of the generated heat remains in the extruded metal, some is transmitted to the container and die, and some even increases the temperature of the part of the billet that is not yet extruded. The process of heat conduction through the billet during extrusion...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.tpmpa.t54480225
EISBN: 978-1-62708-318-8
... Abstract This chapter discusses the equipment and processes used to convert titanium billet and bar into useful shapes or more refined product forms. These secondary working operations include open-die, closed-die, hot-die and isothermal forging as well as ring rolling and extruding...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.aet.t68260187
EISBN: 978-1-62708-336-2
..., the other relating minimum wall thickness with circumscribing circle diameter. It then explains how oxides on either the billet or container complicate the control of extrusion as well as auxiliary processes and how material flow and the movement of trapped gasses in different regions of the extrusion can...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.aet.t68260149
EISBN: 978-1-62708-336-2
... Extrusion of aluminum alloy shapes represents the most advanced technology in terms of alloy making, press design, tooling, and die design. The billet chemistry determines the type of alloy and its applications. The 6000-series alloys are widely used based on their having the best technical and economic...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 October 2011
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mnm2.t53060117
EISBN: 978-1-62708-261-7
... , 2nd ed. , Addison-Wesley , 1991 , p 262 In metalworking processes, a workpiece—such as a billet or a blanked sheet, for example—can be plastically deformed by a set of tools (or dies) to obtain the desired final thickness and geometrical configuration. Metal forming processes can...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 July 2009
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.bcp.t52230267
EISBN: 978-1-62708-298-3
...-Fine Beryllium Powder ,” ASD-TDR-62-509, Vol 3 , Beryllium Research and Development Program, Nuclear Metals Inc. , West Concord, MA Reeves G.L. , and Keeley R.L. , 1961 . “ The Pressureless Sintering of Beryllium Powder to Billets for Hot Extrusion ,” Paper 11, Institute of Metals...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ex2.t69980059
EISBN: 978-1-62708-342-3
... passing through the billet to produce the internal contour and a die for the external contour. Rod extrusion is the extrusion of wire, strip, sections, bars, and hollow sections through a die. Tube extrusion is the extrusion of seamless tubes as well as seamless hollow sections over a mandrel...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.stg2.t61280117
EISBN: 978-1-62708-267-9
... of substantially the shape of the desired component. Billet origin, before the (often isothermal) powder forging operation to produce configurations desired for final machining, may be either extruded or HIPed compacts. Although virtually every P/M consolidation technique has been applied to superalloys...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 February 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.chffa.t51040257
EISBN: 978-1-62708-300-3
... for aerospace components, are relatively expensive and hard to machine. Adding extra metal to the forging configuration results in added input metal and machining costs to produce the final components. Isothermal forging was developed to provide a near-net shape component geometry and well-controlled...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 February 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.chffa.9781627083003
EISBN: 978-1-62708-300-3
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.emea.t52240279
EISBN: 978-1-62708-251-8
... in a somewhat continuous manner. Many engineering metals are often cast into ingots and then processed by hot rolling into blooms, slabs, and billets ( Fig. 16.5 ), which are then rolled into other products, such as plate, sheet, tube, rod, bar, and structural shapes. Rolling of blooms, slabs, billets, plates...