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Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.pht2.t51440279
EISBN: 978-1-62708-262-4
...Abstract Abstract As the carburizing process has become more sophisticated and controllable, it also has become easy to change the carbon potential during the carburizing process. It is important that the change in the carbon potential be made at the right time in the overall cycle...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 November 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.uhcf3.t53630xvi
EISBN: 978-1-62708-270-9
...Abstract Abstract Designs and materials continue to become more complex, with novel technologies developed to create them, and novel instruments invented to analyze them. Engineers at all stages of the design and manufacturing process should appreciate the reasons why formal failure analysis...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mfadr7.t91110010
EISBN: 978-1-62708-247-1
.... Figure 9 Optical image showing broken trace in package substrate Abstract Abstract As semiconductor feature sizes have shrunk, the technology needed to encapsulate modern integrated circuits has expanded. Due to the various industry changes, package failure analyses are becoming much more...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mfadr7.t91110379
EISBN: 978-1-62708-247-1
..., delayering techniques for reverse engineering is becoming increasingly challenging. The primary goal of delayering in semiconductor failure analysis is to successfully remove layers of material in order to locate and identify the area of interest. Several of the top-down delayering techniques include wet...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.emea.t52240265
EISBN: 978-1-62708-251-8
...Abstract Abstract Creep occurs in any metal or alloy at a temperature where atoms become sufficiently mobile to allow the time-dependent rearrangement of structure. This chapter begins with a section on creep curves, covering the three distinct stages: primary, secondary, and tertiary...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2007
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.htcma.t52080003
EISBN: 978-1-62708-304-1
...Abstract Abstract This chapter explains how materials selection becomes much more difficult when designing for high-temperature corrosion environments. It also discusses the use of cladding and weld overlays to compensate for material deficiencies and prolong service life. corrosion...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.fdsm.t69870009
EISBN: 978-1-62708-344-7
... counting method, mechanical modeling based on displacement-limited elements, Wetzel’s method, and deformation modeling. It also explains the difference between force cycling and stress cycling and presents alternate techniques for predicting whether a material will become harder or softer in response...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cpi2.t55030165
EISBN: 978-1-62708-282-2
... so that it becomes the cathode (cathodic protection). This chapter briefly reviews these methods of corrosion protection. The factors affecting corrosion behavior are covered. In addition, the chapter provides information on coatings and inhibitors, which are used in corrosion protection...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.fibtca.t52430379
EISBN: 978-1-62708-253-2
... and describes the effect of impurities and feedwater parameters on high-pressure boiler components. It discusses deposition and scaling, types of corrosion, and carryover, a condition that occurs when steam becomes contaminated with droplets of boiler water. The chapter also covers water treatment procedures...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.fibtca.t52430409
EISBN: 978-1-62708-253-2
... ferritic steels correlated with the Larson–Miller parameter. Source: Ref 8.10 Fig. 8.1 Plot of hardness against the Larson-Miller parameter for 9Cr-1Mo steel tested at different stresses and temperatures. Source: Ref 8.9 Abstract Abstract The power generating industry has become...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.emea.t52240117
EISBN: 978-1-62708-251-8
... purity grain size crystal recovery IF A METAL IS DEFORMED at room temperature, or up to approximately 0.3 T m (where T m is the absolute scale melting point), the microstructure becomes severely deformed due to cold working, also known as work hardening or strain hardening. During cold...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 July 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.fec.t65940087
EISBN: 978-1-62708-302-7
... equilibrium for the metal reaction M = M m+ + me, where the oxidation current density, i ox,M , is equal to the reduction current density, i red,M . Fig. 3.13 Diffusion overpotentials as a function of current density. Overpotentials become very large as the current density approaches the limiting...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 September 2011
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cfw.t52860049
EISBN: 978-1-62708-338-6
... also the section on (non-) geodesic curves. For the theory presented here, one should realize that once the meridian profile is given, the angle β becomes fully determined as a function of t ( Eq 5.16 ). To describe a winding path, a definition for ϕ = ϕ( t ) (and thereof ϕ′( t...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.horfi.t51180127
EISBN: 978-1-62708-256-3
... a point, walk to the screen and put your hand on it, or walk toward someone who has asked you a question. Practice your presentation in front of a “friendly” audience, such as your coworkers, before actually presenting it to the customer. Once you gain a bit of confidence, it becomes easy and even fun...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2009
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.sfa.t52780141
EISBN: 978-1-62708-268-6
... equipment (such as conveyors, carts, trays, and other similar items used for moving materials between locations) can be a contaminant source. Materials handling equipment can become contaminated from any number of sources and then transfer its contamination to the products it contacts. Work areas...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 September 2011
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cfw.t52860019
EISBN: 978-1-62708-338-6
... ) For maximum strength (not necessarily performance), k e should be replaced with k s , which is the ratio of the transverse to the longitudinal (fiber direction) strength of a single layer ( Ref 3.8 ). For the netting case (matrix stiffness negligible), k e = 0; for isotropic materials, k e becomes...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cw.t51820115
EISBN: 978-1-62708-339-3
... and stress relieved condition. Tempering between approximately 400–570 °C (750–1050 °F) lowers its resistance in some media. This grade has good oxidation resistance up to 680 °C (1250 °F) in continuous service. Scaling becomes excessive above approximately 760 °C (1400 °F) in intermittent service. Turbine...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.emea.t52240053
EISBN: 978-1-62708-251-8
... the magnitude of the negative number), the greater is the driving force for a transformation. In other words, if the free-energy change is a small negative number, the driving force is low, and as it becomes more negative, the driving force increases. The following develops these concepts in a little more...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mfadr7.t91110634
EISBN: 978-1-62708-247-1
..., path delay, bridging) have been proposed, but are used much less frequently [28] . Test is a critical step in IC production. At each level of assembly of a saleable product (wafer, package, board, system) it becomes increasingly costly to find problems. The highest cost is incurred in customer...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.pdub.t53420015
EISBN: 978-1-62708-310-2
... the phase rule becomes: F = C + 2 − P F = 1 + 2 − 1 = 2 Fig. 2.4 Unary diagram for magnesium with points in one-, two-, and three-phase regions of the diagram. Adapted from: Ref 2.1 That is, there are two degrees of freedom. If both the pressure...