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batch metal-etch systems

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Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.pht2.t51440243
EISBN: 978-1-62708-262-4
... or laser processes. Fig. 1 Microstructure of hot-rolled AISI 1022 steel showing severe banding. Bands of pearlite (dark) and ferrite were caused by segragation of carbon and other elements during solidification and later decomposition of austenite. Etched in natal. 250×. Source: Ref 1...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.pht2.t51440085
EISBN: 978-1-62708-262-4
... the temperature. The indicating phase of the system must, however, be calibrated and set for the two dissimilar metals used in the thermocouple. The accuracy of the measurement depends primarily on the accuracy of the temperature sensor and the connecting lead wire ( Table 2 ). The accuracy of the digital...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 1988
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.eihdca.t65220281
EISBN: 978-1-62708-341-6
... Abstract Induction heating has found widespread use as a method to raise the temperature of a metal prior to forming or joining, or to change its metallurgical structure. However, induction heating has specialized capabilities that make it suitable for applications outside of metal treatment...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 October 2011
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mnm2.t53060197
EISBN: 978-1-62708-261-7
... the same. Almost any metal can be softened by annealing after cold working, as discussed in Chapter 3, “Mechanical Properties and Strengthening Mechanisms,” in this book. Fewer alloy systems can be strengthened or hardened by heat treatment, but practically all steels can be strengthened by heat...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.pnfn.t65900053
EISBN: 978-1-62708-350-8
... Fig. 1 Principal furnace types for liquid salt bath nitriding. (a) and (b) Externally heated. (c) and (d) Internally heated, with immersed alloy electrodes and metal liner or submerged electrodes with ceramic tile lining Fig. 2 Ferritic nodular iron, salt bath nitrided 90 min at 580...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.spsp2.9781627082655
EISBN: 978-1-62708-265-5
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mfub.t53740325
EISBN: 978-1-62708-308-9
... acids, such as citric, oxalic, acetic, tartaric, and gluconic acids, occupy an important place in acid cleaning because of their chelating capability. Phosphoric Acid Etching Phosphoric acid is often used as an etchant for nonferrous metals (such as copper, brass, aluminum, and zinc) to enhance...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.spsp2.t54410233
EISBN: 978-1-62708-265-5
... of annealing at 540 °C (1000 °F) for two hours ( Ref 12.10 ). The deformed ferrite grains are elongated, and although the dislocation substructure is not resolvable in the light microscope, slip lines and rough-etching response to the dislocation substructure are apparent. After annealing at 540 °C...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 June 2023
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.atia.t59340117
EISBN: 978-1-62708-427-7
... for softening processes to produce final, O and H2 x temper, properties or simply soften the metal for further cold rolling. Typically, these annealing treatments are performed in a batch furnace that anneal one or more coils at the same time ( Fig. 6.13 ). The thermal practices are well established...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2007
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.pmsspmp.9781627083126
EISBN: 978-1-62708-312-6
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2017
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.sccmpe2.t55090419
EISBN: 978-1-62708-266-2
.... General information on the chemical substances and environments likely to cause SCC in specific metal alloys is provided in Table 18.2 ( Ref 18.4 ). Environments that cause stress-corrosion cracking in numerous metal alloy systems Table 18.2 Environments that cause stress-corrosion cracking...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1984
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mpp.9781627082600
EISBN: 978-1-62708-260-0
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 1999
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.lmcs.t66560427
EISBN: 978-1-62708-291-4
... of the temperature, pressure, and composition limits of phase fields in an alloy system as they exist under conditions of thermodynamical equilibrium. In metal systems, pressure is usually considered constant. Compare with phase diagram. etchant. A chemical solution used to etch a metal to reveal structural details...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.smfpa.t53500301
EISBN: 978-1-62708-317-1
..., in systems such as ARGUS, a three-dimensional (3-D) optical measuring system developed by GOM GmbH, instead of using a fringe pattern, the sheet metal is marked with a grid of dots, either through chemical etching or laser marking, and then formed ( Fig. 15.20 ). Images of the formed part are then taken...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 April 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.imub.t53720365
EISBN: 978-1-62708-305-8
... Abstract In forgings of both ferrous and nonferrous metals, the flaws that most often occur are caused by conditions that exist in the ingot, by subsequent hot working of the ingot or the billet, and by hot or cold working during forging. The inspection methods most commonly used to detect...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mfub.t53740047
EISBN: 978-1-62708-308-9
... travel to go into solution) and the amount of segregation. Because segregation causes the casting composition to vary locally, chemical etching can reveal the cast structure. When metal is poured into a mold, the liquid has a velocity from the pouring operation. In addition, as the metal cools...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.stg2.t61280041
EISBN: 978-1-62708-267-9
... significant amounts of slag from the products of deoxidation, desulfurization, and the deterioration of the refractory crucible lining. The heat is poured so as to decant the molten metal from under the slag. Generally, the refractory pouring system used to conduct the molten metal to the molds also...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 1999
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.lmcs.t66560361
EISBN: 978-1-62708-291-4
... hematite (Fe 2 O 3 ) and the inner layer of gray appearance being magnetite (Fe 3 O 4 ). Cavities are also present, principally in the magnetite layer, but the magnetite is fully adherent to the base metal. A grain structure can be developed in the magnetite layer through etching by a number of methods...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cw.t51820177
EISBN: 978-1-62708-339-3
... in certain other problems. Hydrogen coming from moisture in certain weld consumables or during nonoptimal field welding conditions can become dissolved in liquid weld metal. This dissolved hydrogen can cause cracking during solidification, as well as embrittlement of the weld. Dissolved hydrogen...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.htgpge.t67320033
EISBN: 978-1-62708-347-8
... location: gear hub. Process: 100×, etched 3% nital Fig. 5.65 Gear distortion inspection format Fig. 5.66 Carbon and hardness gradient Fig. 5.63 Basic dimensions of the experimental gear Fig. 5.61 Residual compressive stress below surface for standard and shot-peened...