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Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.spsp2.t54410099
EISBN: 978-1-62708-265-5
... Bainite is an intermediate temperature transformation product of austenite. This chapter describes the conditions under which bainite is likely to form. It discusses the effects of alloying on bainitic transformation, the difference between upper and lower bainite, and the influence of solute...
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Published: 01 January 2015
Fig. 6.11 Lower bainite, showing fine carbides in the plates of the lower bainite, on a polished and nital-etched section of a medium carbon steel. Original magnification 3,000×, Field Emission SEM micrograph More
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Published: 31 December 2020
Fig. 18 Microstructure of (a) upper bainite and (b) lower bainite in a Cr-Mo-V rotor steel. 2% nital + 4% picral etch. Original magnification: 500×. (c) S5 tool steel austenitized, isothermally transformed (partially) at 540 °C (1000 °F) for 8 h, and water quenched to form upper bainite (dark More
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.pdub.t53420303
EISBN: 978-1-62708-310-2
...Abstract Abstract This chapter examines two important strengthening mechanisms, martensitic and bainitic transformations, both of which occur under nonequilibrium cooling conditions. It explains how time-temperature-transformation diagrams are constructed and how they are used to understand...
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Published: 01 January 2015
Fig. 6.5 Upper bainite in 4360 steel isothermally transformed at (a) 495 °C (920 °F) and (b) 410 °C (770 °F). Light micrographs, picral etch, original magnification 750×. Source: Ref 6.12 More
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Published: 01 January 2015
Fig. 6.6 Upper bainite (dark rectangular areas) in 4150 steel transformed at 460 °C (860 °F). Light micrograph, nital etch, original magnification 500×. Courtesy of Florence Jacobs, Colorado School of Mines More
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Published: 01 January 2015
Fig. 6.7 Carbide particles (dark) formed between ferrite crystals in upper bainite in 4360 steel transformed at 495 °C (920 °F). Transmission electron micrograph, original magnification 25,000×. Source: Ref 6.12 More
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Published: 01 January 2015
Fig. 6.9 Lower bainite in 4360 steel transformed at 300 °C (570 °F). Light micrograph, picral etch, original magnification 750×. Source: Ref 6.12 More
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Published: 01 January 2015
Fig. 6.10 Lower bainite with fine carbides within ferrite plates in 4360 steel transformed at 300 °C (570 °F). Transmission electron micrograph, original magnification 24,000×. Source: Ref 6.12 More
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Published: 01 January 2015
Fig. 6.12 Lower bainite with midribs in a 1.10% carbon steel transformed at 190 °C (375 °F) for 5 h. (a) Light micrograph. (b) TEM micrograph. Courtesy of H. Okamoto, Tottori University. More
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Published: 01 March 2002
Fig. 2.1(d) A microstructure consisting of pearlite (dark), bainite (gray), and martensite (white). 4% picral and 2% nitral etch. 500× More
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Published: 01 March 2002
Fig. 2.33 Upper bainite in an AISI/SAE 8720 steel isothermally transformed at 425 °C (797 °F) for 90 s. 4% picral etch. 500× More
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Published: 01 March 2002
Fig. 2.34 Lower bainite in an AISI/SAE 8720 steel isothermally transformed at 325 °C (617 °F) for 100 s. 4% picral etch. 800× More
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Published: 01 March 2002
Fig. 2.35 Granular bainite in a 0.2% C, 0.3% Mn, 3% Ni, 1.5% Cr, and 0.4% Mo steel. 4% picral etch. 800× More
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Published: 01 March 2002
Fig. 6.33 A series of micrographs, taken on the hot-stage microscope, of the bainite transformation in a low-alloy steel. The specimen was cooled at a rate of 17 °C/s. The times in seconds are shown below each frame. Unetched. More
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Published: 01 August 2018
Fig. 9.23 Schematic representation of the two most common bainite morphologies. (a) Upper bainite and (b) lower bainite. The dark particles represent cementite, and the white regions represent ferrite. Simplified growth schemes are indicated for upper bainite (c) with carbide precipitation More
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Published: 01 August 2018
Fig. 9.25 Growth of bainite plates from intragranular nonmetallic inclusions in a steel containing C = 0.38%, Mn = 1.39%, S = 0.039%, V = 0.09%, N = 130 ppm isothermally treated for 38 s at 450 °C (842 °F). Arrow indicates bainite plates with carbides in between the plates as well as inside them More
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Published: 01 August 2018
Fig. 9.26 Growth of intragranular plates of granular bainite in a steel containing C = 0.38%, Mn = 1.39%, S = 0.039%, V = 0.09%, N = 130 ppm isothermally treated for 38 s at 500 °C (930 °F). Arrow indicates individual plates of bainitic ferrite nucleated in a nonmetallic inclusion. Courtesy G More
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Published: 01 August 2018
Fig. 9.27 Bainite in low alloy steel ASTM A 533 Cl.1 (ASME SA 533 Cl 1 or 20MnMoNi55) containing C = 0.2%, Mn = 1.38%, Si = 0.25%, Ni = 0.83%, Mo = 0.49% (same steel as in Fig. 9.15 ) continuously cooled at 0.1 °C/s (0.18 °F/s). Transformation start at 590 °C (1094 °F). Etchant: nital 2%. Prior More
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Published: 01 August 2018
Fig. 9.28 Bainite in low alloy steel ASTM A 533 Cl.1 (ASME SA 533 Cl 1 or 20MnMoNi55) containing C = 0.2%, Mn = 1.38%, Si = 0.25%, Ni = 0.83%, Mo = 0.49% (same steel as in Fig. 9.15 ) continuously cooled at 2 °C/s (3.5 °F/s). Transformation start at 590 °C (1094 °F). Etchant: nital 2%. Prior More