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austenitization

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Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 1999
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.lmcs.t66560185
EISBN: 978-1-62708-291-4
... Abstract This chapter examines the structural changes that occur in high-carbon steels during austenitization. It describes the effect of heating time and temperature on the production of austenite and the associated transformation of ferrite and cementite in eutectoid, hypoeutectoid, and...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2007
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.smnm.t52140107
EISBN: 978-1-62708-264-8
... Abstract The first step in the hardening of steel is getting it hot enough to form austenite, from which martensite can form upon quenching. Not all steels have the same austenitization requirements, however. High-carbon wear-resistant steels, such as bearing and tool steels, require the...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.spsp2.t54410133
EISBN: 978-1-62708-265-5
... Austenite is the key to the versatility of steel and the controllable nature of its properties. It is the parent phase of pearlite, martensite, bainite, and ferrite. This chapter discusses the importance of austenite, beginning with the influence of austenitic grain size and how to accurately...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 1999
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.lmcs.t66560283
EISBN: 978-1-62708-291-4
... Abstract This chapter describes the effects that can be observed by light microscopy when a steel in the hardened condition, consisting of martensite and possibly some retained austenite, is heated at subcritical temperatures. It includes micrographs that illustrate the effect of carbide...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 December 2020
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.phtbp.t59310163
EISBN: 978-1-62708-326-3
... Abstract This chapter discusses the processes involved in the heat treatment of steel, namely austenitizing, hardening, quenching, and tempering. It begins with an overview of austenitizing of steels by induction heating, followed by a discussion on the processes involved in transformation of...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 December 2020
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.phtbp.t59310233
EISBN: 978-1-62708-326-3
... Abstract This chapter discusses the composition and classification of stainless steels and focuses on the processes involved in heat treatment and applications of these steels. The wrought and the cast stainless steels covered are ferritic, austenitic, duplex (ferritic-austenitic), martensitic...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.msisep.t59220193
EISBN: 978-1-62708-259-4
... Abstract Heat treatment is the most common way of altering the mechanical, physical, and even chemical properties of steels. This chapter describes the changes that occur in carbon and low-alloy steels during conventional heat treatments. It explains how austenite decomposition largely defines...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1999
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cmp.t66770077
EISBN: 978-1-62708-337-9
... Abstract This chapter addresses the issue of retained austenite in quenched carburized steels. It explains why retained austenite can be expected at the surface of case-hardened components, how to estimate the amount that will be present, and how to effectively stabilize or otherwise control it...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 1999
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.lmcs.t66560221
EISBN: 978-1-62708-291-4
... Abstract This chapter discusses the isothermal transformation of austenite to pearlite, bainite, martensite, proeutectoid ferrite, and proeutectoid cementite. It describes the transformation mechanisms in eutectoid, hypoeutectoid, and hypereutectoid steels, the factors that influence nucleation...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ssde.t52310069
EISBN: 978-1-62708-286-0
... Abstract This chapter discusses the compositions, mechanical properties, phase structure, stabilization, corrosion resistance, and advantages of austenitic stainless steels. Austenitic alloys are classified and reviewed in three groups: (1) lean alloys, such as 201 and 301, which are generally...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ssde.t52310161
EISBN: 978-1-62708-286-0
... Abstract This chapter discusses different thermal processes applicable to the various alloy groups of stainless steels, namely austenitic, ferritic, martensitic, precipitation hardening, and duplex stainless steels. The processes discussed include soaking, annealing, stress relieving...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2017
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.sccmpe2.t55090095
EISBN: 978-1-62708-266-2
..., polythionic acid, and high-temperature environments and the correlating effects on austenitic, ferritic, duplex, martensitic, and precipitation hardening stainless steels and nickel-base alloys. It also discusses the contributing effects of sensitization and hydrogen embrittlement and the role of composition...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 December 2020
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.phtbp.t59310079
EISBN: 978-1-62708-326-3
... Abstract The hardenability of steel is governed almost entirely by the chemical composition (carbon and alloy content) at the austenitizing temperature and the austenite grain size at the moment of quenching. This article introduces the methods to evaluate hardenability and the factors that...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2007
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.smnm.t52140157
EISBN: 978-1-62708-264-8
... unique to tool steels, including two-phase effects, austenite stabilization, and the conditioning of retained austenite. austenite carbides heat treatment mechanical properties tool steel ONE OF THE CHARACTERISTICS of our species, Homo sapiens , has been the use of tools. Because our...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cw.t51820043
EISBN: 978-1-62708-339-3
... Abstract Austenitic stainless steels exhibit a single-phase, face-centered cubic structure that is maintained over a wide range of temperatures. This chapter provides a basic understanding of grade designations, properties, and welding considerations of austenitic stainless steels. It also...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cw.t51820099
EISBN: 978-1-62708-339-3
... Abstract Duplex stainless steels are two-phase alloys based on the iron-chromium-nickel system. Duplex stainless steels offer corrosion resistance and cost advantages over the common austenitic stainless steels. Although there are some problems with welding duplex alloys, considerable progress...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 December 2020
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.phtbp.t59310029
EISBN: 978-1-62708-326-3
... room temperature, for example, iron atoms arrange themselves into a body-centered cubic (bcc) crystal structure—called ferrite or alpha (α) iron. At higher temperatures, the iron atoms form a face-centered cubic (fcc) crystal structure—called austenite or gamma (γ) iron. The existence of these two...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.msisep.t59220551
EISBN: 978-1-62708-259-4
... Abstract Steels with chromium contents above 12% show high resistance to oxidation and corrosion and are generally designated as stainless steels. This chapter discusses the compositions, microstructures, heat treatments, and properties of martensitic, ferritic, austenitic, ferritic-austenitic...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ahsssta.t53700151
EISBN: 978-1-62708-279-2
... Abstract This chapter is a brief account of the composition, microstructures, heat treatment, deformation mechanisms, mechanical properties, formability, and special attributes of austenitic stainless steels. chemical composition microstructure heat treatment deformation mechanical...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 September 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.fahtsc.t51130537
EISBN: 978-1-62708-284-6
... Table A4.1 Austenitizing temperatures for direct-hardening carbon and alloy steels (SAE) Steel Temperature °C °F Carbon steels 1025 855–900 1575–1650 1030 845–870 1550–1600 1035 830–855 1525–1575 1037 830–855 1525–1575 1038 (a) 830–855 1525–1575...