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austenitic ductile iron

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Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cw.t51820115
EISBN: 978-1-62708-339-3
... crystal structure (martensitic) in the hardened condition. Martensitic stainless steels are similar to plain carbon or low-alloy steels that are austenitized, hardened by quenching, and then tempered for increased ductility and toughness. This chapter provides a basic understanding of grade designations...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 October 2011
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mnm2.t53060247
EISBN: 978-1-62708-261-7
... Austempered ductile iron Spheroidal graphite B, AF Silver-gray Heat treatment (a) F, ferrite; P, pearlite; A, austenite; M, martensite; B, Bainite; AF, ausferrite. (b) White irons are not usually heat treated, except for stress relief and to continue austenite transformation. Ranges...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.aub.t61170062
EISBN: 978-1-62708-297-6
... on Hardenability Effects of Alloying on Normalizing Effects of Alloying on Austempering Effects of Alloying on Corrosion Behavior Austenitic Nickel-Alloyed Ductile Irons High-Silicon Ductile Irons References References 1. Gundlach R.B. , Loper C.R. Jr. , and Morgensteren B...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2007
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.smnm.t52140175
EISBN: 978-1-62708-264-8
..., and their composition ranges are specified in Table 16.1 . Gray and white cast irons are discussed first, followed by malleable and ductile cast irons. In cast irons, a eutectic reaction occurs at the base of the austenite dendrites. The four main cast iron types Table 16.1 The four main cast iron types...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 December 2020
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.phtbp.t59310331
EISBN: 978-1-62708-326-3
... on the midpoint (50% transformed) of the transformation of austenite in a low-alloy and a high-alloy iron. Source: Ref 12 Fig. 14 Effect of austempering temperature on yield strength of ductile cast iron. Courtesy J. Keough, Applied Process Inc. Source: Ref 3 Fig. 5 Schematic...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.pht2.t51440207
EISBN: 978-1-62708-262-4
... Influence of alloy content on hardness of quenched and tempered gray iron test castings. Castings were normalized to the same hardness range before being austenitized for hardening and were oil quenched from 850 °C (1560 °F). Source: Ref 5 , 6 Fig. 10 Strength and ductility ranges of as-cast...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.msisep.t59220583
EISBN: 978-1-62708-259-4
... and/or finishing austenite decomposiiton) Malleable cast irons … F, P Heat treatment Austempered nodular cast iron or austermpered ductile iron Nodular graphite B, austempering Heat treatment Note: A = austenite, F = ferrite, P = pearlite, M = martensite, B = bainite. Source: Ref 5 Thermal...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ems.t53730069
EISBN: 978-1-62708-283-9
... of ductile cast iron is similar to that of steel. Fig. 7.12 Ductile cast iron. The spheroids are graphite and the white areas are ferrite. Source: Ref 7.6 Both gray and ductile cast irons may be reheated to form a structure of graphite and austenite. The rate of cooling, then, determines...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ahsssta.t53700023
EISBN: 978-1-62708-279-2
.... Austenitic stainless steels (AUST SS) are iron alloys containing between 16 to 26% Cr and approximately 8% Ni. They are nonmagnetic and have a fcc crystal structure. Austenite is retained because of the large amounts of austenitizing elements used, such as nickel, manganese, and nitrogen. They cannot...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mgppis.t60400001
EISBN: 978-1-62708-258-7
.... This is essentially a subclass of ductile iron. Austempered ductile irons have the same spherical or nodular graphite as a normal ductile iron, but the matrix is a combination of bainite (acicular ferrite and carbides) and stabilized austenite. The microstructure of a typical austempered ductile iron is shown in Fig...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mgppis.t60400023
EISBN: 978-1-62708-258-7
... A drawing of a dendrite Fig. 2.54 Plate martensite transformation in the primary austenite dendrites of an alloy (Ni-Hard) white cast iron (2.95% C, 0.63% Mn, 0.73% Si, 3.08% Ni, and 2.17% Cr). 4% picral etch. 500× Fig. 2.55 Additional formation of plate martensite in the same sample...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.spsp2.t54410579
EISBN: 978-1-62708-265-5
..., Colorado School of Mines The presence of ferrite in austenitic stainless steels may lead to the formation of sigma (σ) phase, which may adversely affect ductility, toughness, and corrosion resistance of austenitic stainless steels ( Ref 23.14 ). Sigma phase dominates the central portion of the iron...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 September 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.gmpm.t51250039
EISBN: 978-1-62708-345-4
... characteristics of gear steels and the bending fatigue strength and properties of carburized steels are reviewed. In addition to wrought steels, the chapter provides information on the other iron-base alloys that are used for gears, namely cast carbon and alloy steels, gray and ductile cast irons, powder...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.emea.t52240453
EISBN: 978-1-62708-251-8
..., V, Cr, Sn, Mo, and Mn) promote the formation of cementite. This chapter examines the relative potencies of these alloys and their effect on microstructure. It covers the five most common commercial cast irons, including white, gray, ductile, malleable, and compacted graphite, describing...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mgppis.t60400049
EISBN: 978-1-62708-258-7
... difference of iron sulfide in Fig. 3.41 . Unetched. 1000× Fig. 3.43 Microstructure of an AISI/SAE 316 stainless steel showing sensitization. Note the chromium carbides at the austenite grain boundaries. The steel was exposed to 675 °C (1250 °F) for 12 days. HCl/HNO 3 /H 2 O etch. 1000× Fig...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.emea.t52240153
EISBN: 978-1-62708-251-8
... microstructure. Diffusion is possible because the small interstitial carbon atoms can diffuse quite rapidly through the iron lattice at elevated temperatures. In addition, diffusion is faster in the more loosely packed bcc ferrite structure than the closer packed fcc austenite structure. However, diffusion...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.piht2.t55050093
EISBN: 978-1-62708-311-9
... Hardness Hardenability Role of Carbon in Hardened Steels Transformation to Austenite Austenitizing of Various Steels Effect of Chemical Composition on Transition Temperatures Effect of Prior Microstructure and Grain Size Carbon Steel Alloy Steels Gray Cast Iron Ductile Cast...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.pdub.t53420143
EISBN: 978-1-62708-310-2
.... When pure iron solidifies on cooling from its melting point of 1540 °C (2800 °F), it assumes a body-centered cubic (bcc) structure designated as δ-ferrite. On further cooling between 1395 and 910 °C (2541 and 1673 °F), it has a face-centered cubic (fcc) structure called austenite, designated as γ...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.fibtca.t52430027
EISBN: 978-1-62708-253-2
... is called ferrite or α -ferrite . It is very soft and ductile and has low strength. Austenite is the name given to the solid solution of carbon in fcc γ-iron with maximum solubility equal to 2.0 wt.% at 1147 °C (2096 °F). Thus, the solubility of carbon in austenite is approximately 100 times greater...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cpi2.t55030148
EISBN: 978-1-62708-282-2
... for three strain rates (crosshead speeds, ε ˙ ). Source: Ref 15 Fig. 9 Ductility loss for several austenitic stainless steels in high-pressure hydrogen. Source: Ref 21 Fig. 11 Time to failure of various alloys as a function of yield strength when tested under 345 MPa (50 ksi...