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austenite-to-ferrite transformation

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Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.pht2.t51440009
EISBN: 978-1-62708-262-4
... on transformations and on the classification of steels by carbon content. The chapter ends with a discussion on the effect of time on transformation and on the use of time-temperature-transformation diagrams. allotropy austenite-to-ferrite transformation carbon content commercially pure iron...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 1999
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.lmcs.t66560221
EISBN: 978-1-62708-291-4
... Abstract This chapter discusses the isothermal transformation of austenite to pearlite, bainite, martensite, proeutectoid ferrite, and proeutectoid cementite. It describes the transformation mechanisms in eutectoid, hypoeutectoid, and hypereutectoid steels, the factors that influence nucleation...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.spsp2.t54410197
EISBN: 978-1-62708-265-5
... Isothermal and continuous cooling transformation (CT) diagrams help users map out diffusion-controlled phase transformations of austenite to various mixtures of ferrite and cementite. This chapter discusses the application as well as limitations of these engineering tools in the context of heat...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ahsssta.t53700115
EISBN: 978-1-62708-279-2
..., nickel, and vanadium are added to improve the strength of the steel. Transformation-induced plasticity steels consist of two phases: a ferrite/bainite matrix and a 5 to 20% volume fraction of metastable retained austenite, which progressively transforms to martensite during plastic deformation. The...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 December 2020
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.phtbp.t59310055
EISBN: 978-1-62708-326-3
... microstructure also plays a great role in heating. A finely distributed structure such as tempered martensite is more rapidly transformed to austenite than, for instance, a ferritic-pearlitic structure. This is particularly true for alloyed steels with carbide-forming alloying elements such as chromium and...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.msisep.t59220193
EISBN: 978-1-62708-259-4
...-5803(03)00002-0 64. Gouné M. , Danoix F. , Ågren J. , Bréchet Y. , Hutchinson C.R. , Militzer M. , et al. , Overview of the Current Issues in Austenite to Ferrite Transformation and the Role of Migrating Interfaces therein for Low-Alloyed Steels , Mat. Scie...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.spsp2.t54410039
EISBN: 978-1-62708-265-5
... The microstructure of carbon steel is largely determined by the transformation of austenite to ferrite, cementite, and pearlite. This chapter focuses on the microstructures produced by diffusion-controlled transformations that occur at relatively low cooling rates. It describes the conditions...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 December 2020
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.phtbp.t59310029
EISBN: 978-1-62708-326-3
... (quenched), it produces a different mechanism of phase transformation. During rapid quenching from austenite to ferrite, there is not enough time for the excess carbon atoms to diffuse and form cementite along with the bcc ferrite. Therefore, some (or all) of the carbon atoms become trapped in the ferrite...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2007
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.smnm.t52140083
EISBN: 978-1-62708-264-8
... rearrangement is accomplished by diffusion. Similarly, during transformation in the alloy, the chromium and manganese atoms must rearrange from uniform distributions in the old austenite to higher levels in the carbides that form and lower levels in the ferrite that forms. However, the diffusional rearrangement...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 1999
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.lmcs.t66560165
EISBN: 978-1-62708-291-4
... spheroidization of normalized and annealed steels by heating at subcritical temperatures. It explains how lamellar pearlite and proeutectoid cementite transform when heated and how deformation prior to heating affects both the mechanism and kinetics of spheroidization. It also explains how austenitizing...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.spsp2.t54410099
EISBN: 978-1-62708-265-5
... ranges, austenite may transform only to ferrite, resulting in two-phase microstructures of ferrite and retained austenite. The latter microstructures have morphologies quite different from the proeutectoid ferrite morphologies described in Chapter 4, “Pearlite, Ferrite, and Cementite.” Although some...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.msisep.t59220101
EISBN: 978-1-62708-259-4
... BCC phase is essentially a single phase, at room temperature, containing only the BCC phase, called ferrite . Ferrite formation from austenite (FCC, γ) in conditions close to equilibrium is shown schematically in Fig. 7.2 . Fig. 7.2 Schematic presentation of the transformation of austenite in...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 1999
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.lmcs.t66560029
EISBN: 978-1-62708-291-4
... the solubility of carbon in ferrite. The dominant features of the Fe-Fe 3 C diagram are the widely different solubilities of carbon in ferrite and in austenite and the associated eutectoid transformation at 727 °C that gives rise to the range of microstructures and associated properties that...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.spsp2.t54410133
EISBN: 978-1-62708-265-5
... of close-packed arrays of iron atoms. Multiphase ferrite-cementite microstructures, stable at room temperature, transform on heating to single-phase austenite. The high solubility of carbon in austenite causes the cementite to dissolve and the carbon concentrated in the cementite to go into solution...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.emea.t52240053
EISBN: 978-1-62708-251-8
... transforms to a mixture of body-centered cubic ferrite (α) and iron carbide (Fe 3 C), called cementite. While metallic phases are usually designated simply with a Greek letter, the phases in steel are so important that they also have names. The transformation that was just described is an example of a...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.msisep.t59220551
EISBN: 978-1-62708-259-4
... compositions may undergo solidification with a liquid to ferrite transformation; later, during hot working and annealing, this ferrite may completely dissolve. Figure 16.16 presents a summary of the possible solidification modes of austenitic stainless steels. The FA mode is normally preferred, since ferrite...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.pdub.t53420143
EISBN: 978-1-62708-310-2
.... 8.10 . Pearlite nodules nucleate at prior austenite grain boundaries and triple points to minimize the free energy needed for the transformation. Each nodule contains sub-units (colonies) of cementite and ferrite lamellae; each colony has a specific orientation relation with the parent austenite grain...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2017
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.sccmpe2.t55090095
EISBN: 978-1-62708-266-2
... transformation of austenite to a ferrite is ignored in practice, and in considering carbon solubility in austenite, the simplified diagram ( Ref 4.4 ) shown in Fig. 4.3 is often regarded as representative of real (i.e., nonequilibrium) situations. In terms of this simplified diagram, up to 0.03% C should be...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ssde.t52310161
EISBN: 978-1-62708-286-0
... fully martensitic. Only austenite transforms to martensite. If other constituents, such as δ ferrite or carbides, exist during the austenitizing heat treatment before quenching, they will not transform to martensite. Some alloys, such as the 440 group, have enough carbon that the austenitizing...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.emea.t52240153
EISBN: 978-1-62708-251-8
... austenite parent phase (0.76 wt% C) is different from that of both ferrite (0.022 wt% C) and cementite (6.7 wt% C), and the phase transformation requires that there be a redistribution of the carbon by diffusion. Carbon atoms diffuse away from the ferrite regions to the cementite layers as the pearlite...