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austenite transformation

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Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 1999
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.lmcs.t66560221
EISBN: 978-1-62708-291-4
... Abstract This chapter discusses the isothermal transformation of austenite to pearlite, bainite, martensite, proeutectoid ferrite, and proeutectoid cementite. It describes the transformation mechanisms in eutectoid, hypoeutectoid, and hypereutectoid steels, the factors that influence nucleation...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 December 2020
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.phtbp.t59310055
EISBN: 978-1-62708-326-3
... Abstract The decomposition of austenite, during controlled cooling or quenching, produces a wide variety of microstructures in response to such factors as steel composition, temperature of transformation, and cooling rate. This chapter provides a detailed discussion on the isothermal...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.spsp2.t54410197
EISBN: 978-1-62708-265-5
... Isothermal and continuous cooling transformation (CT) diagrams help users map out diffusion-controlled phase transformations of austenite to various mixtures of ferrite and cementite. This chapter discusses the application as well as limitations of these engineering tools in the context of heat...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 May 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.hma.t59250059
EISBN: 978-1-62708-287-7
... steels, providing information on hardening, transformation of austenite, hardenability testing, and tempering of as-quenched martensite. austenite transformation automobile industry chromium steels hardenability testing hardening nickel steels nickel-chromium alloy steels tempering...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.spsp2.t54410039
EISBN: 978-1-62708-265-5
... The microstructure of carbon steel is largely determined by the transformation of austenite to ferrite, cementite, and pearlite. This chapter focuses on the microstructures produced by diffusion-controlled transformations that occur at relatively low cooling rates. It describes the conditions...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1999
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cmp.t66770171
EISBN: 978-1-62708-337-9
... to refrigeration, the chapter explains that it is not uncommon for subzero treatments to be included in the production of carburized parts whether as a standard procedure or optional step. Subzero cooling promotes the transformation of retained austenite to martensite, thereby increasing surface hardness...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.spsp2.t54410621
EISBN: 978-1-62708-265-5
..., tungsten, and vanadium. These elements partition between carbides and the austenitic matrix during solidification, hot work, annealing, and austenitizing for hardening. During hardening, the alloy carbides formed in austenite are retained, and the austenite matrix transforms to martensite. Further alloy...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2007
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.smnm.t52140021
EISBN: 978-1-62708-264-8
... the production of hypo- and hypereutectoid steels and the effect of cooling rate on microstructure. It also examines quenched steels and the phase transformations associated with rapid cooling. It describes the development of lath and plate martensite, retained austenite, and bainite and how to identify...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.piht2.t55050093
EISBN: 978-1-62708-311-9
..., the role of carbon in the hardening of steels, the process of austenitization, and the influence of cooling rate on subsequent transformations. The chapter also explains how induction heating affects residual stress, distortion, and grain size. austenite transformation cooling rate distortion...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 December 2020
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.phtbp.t59310163
EISBN: 978-1-62708-326-3
... Abstract This chapter discusses the processes involved in the heat treatment of steel, namely austenitizing, hardening, quenching, and tempering. It begins with an overview of austenitizing of steels by induction heating, followed by a discussion on the processes involved in transformation...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2007
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.smnm.t52140083
EISBN: 978-1-62708-264-8
... in the heat treatment of hardened steels. In order to fully harden the steel bar, the austenite must transform to martensite at all points on the surface to the center of the bar. Consider again the microstructures of the quenched steels shown in Fig. 4.19 and 4.20 . As explained in Chapter 3, “Steel...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 1999
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.lmcs.t66560185
EISBN: 978-1-62708-291-4
... Abstract This chapter examines the structural changes that occur in high-carbon steels during austenitization. It describes the effect of heating time and temperature on the production of austenite and the associated transformation of ferrite and cementite in eutectoid, hypoeutectoid...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.spsp2.t54410099
EISBN: 978-1-62708-265-5
... Bainite is an intermediate temperature transformation product of austenite. This chapter describes the conditions under which bainite is likely to form. It discusses the effects of alloying on bainitic transformation, the difference between upper and lower bainite, and the influence of solute...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 December 2020
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.phtbp.t59310029
EISBN: 978-1-62708-326-3
... phase transformation, hysteresis in heating and cooling, ferrite and austenite as two crystal structures of solid iron, and the diffusion coefficient of carbon. austenite bainite carbon cementite diffusion coefficient ferrite heat treatment iron martensite microstructure pearlite phase...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.msisep.t59220193
EISBN: 978-1-62708-259-4
... together with phase transformations normally envisaged during heat treatment are classified as thermomechanical treatments and are discussed in Chapter 11, “Hot Working,” in this book. The temperatures at which phase transformations between ferrite, austenite, and cementite occur are normally called...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ahsssta.t53700115
EISBN: 978-1-62708-279-2
... (TRIP) steels are one of the newest and interesting materials developed by the steel industry. They are characterized by their excellent strength and high ductility. Transformation-induced plasticity refers to a deformation mechanism where soft retained austenite is transformed into hard martensite...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.spsp2.t54410063
EISBN: 978-1-62708-265-5
... The formation of martensite is characterized by its athermal transformation kinetics, crystallographic features, and development of fine structure. This chapter describes the diffusionless, shear-type transformation of austenite to martensite and how it affects the morphology and microstructure...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.spsp2.t54410335
EISBN: 978-1-62708-265-5
... Abstract The properties of martensite and the mechanisms that govern its formation are the key to understanding hardness and the hardenability of carbon steel. Martensite is a transformation product of austenite that requires rapid cooling to suppress diffusion-dependent transformation pathways...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.emea.t52240371
EISBN: 978-1-62708-251-8
... structural steels, SAE/AISI alloy steels, high-fracture-toughness steels, maraging steels, austenitic manganese steels, high-strength low-alloy steels, dual-phase steels, and transformation-induced plasticity steels. alloying elements mechanical properties low-alloy structural steels SAE/AISI alloy...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.spsp2.t54410487
EISBN: 978-1-62708-265-5
... the close-packed atom structure of face-centered cubic austenite forms. On cooling, when the austenite transforms to more open body-centered crystal structures of ferrite and martensite, there is a volume expansion. The volume changes are a function of carbon content, and Table 20.1 lists the volume...