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Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2007
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.smnm.t52140063
EISBN: 978-1-62708-264-8
...Abstract Abstract Diffusion is the primary mechanism by which carbon atoms move or migrate in iron. It is driven by concentration gradients and aided by heat. This chapter provides a practical understanding of the diffusion process and its role in the production and treatment of steel...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ems.t53730159
EISBN: 978-1-62708-283-9
...Abstract Abstract This appendix contains a table listing the symbol, atomic number, atomic weight, melting temperature, density, atomic radius, and crystal structure of various elements. chemical elements atomic number atomic weight density atomic radius ...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 December 2020
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.phtbp.t59310001
EISBN: 978-1-62708-326-3
... of the generation of either a face-centered cubic (fcc) or hexagonal close-packed (hcp) structure, depending on the locations of atoms on the close-packed third layer. Source: Ref 3 Fig. 26 Nickel-copper phase diagram, showing the liquidus and solidus lines. The freezing range between these two lines...
Book Chapter

By Kenneth A. Walsh
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 July 2009
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.bcp.t52230001
EISBN: 978-1-62708-298-3
...Abstract Abstract Beryllium, despite its relatively simple atomic structure, possesses a wide range of useful engineering properties. It has the highest strength-to-weight ratio and modulus of elasticity among structural metals and is an important alloy addition in copper, nickel, and aluminum...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.msisep.t59220085
EISBN: 978-1-62708-259-4
... and emitted x-rays and the methods used to access it, namely wavelength and energy dispersive spectroscopy and electron backscattering diffraction techniques. It also describes the role of focused ion beam milling in sample preparation and provides information on atom probes, atomic force microscopes...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2007
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.htcma.t52080437
EISBN: 978-1-62708-304-1
... temperatures, hydrogen atoms can be absorbed at the surface and then diffuse into the metal. Hydrogen atoms in the metal then react with iron carbide forming methane gas which can accumulate at grain boundaries and other interfaces. The chapter describes two applications, one in coal-fired boilers, the other...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.spsp2.t54410113
EISBN: 978-1-62708-265-5
... This chapter describes the ferritic microstructures that form in carbon steels under continuous cooling conditions. It begins with a review of the Dubé classification system for crystal morphologies. It then explains how cooling-rate-induced changes involving carbon atom diffusion...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ems.t53730001
EISBN: 978-1-62708-283-9
...Abstract Abstract This chapter discusses the foundational principles of materials science. It begins with a review of the periodic table and the fundamental particles, including atoms, ions, and molecules, that constitute matter. It also reviews the types of bonds that form between atoms...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2010
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.omfrc.t53030237
EISBN: 978-1-62708-349-2
...Abstract Abstract Polymer composite materials are subject to degradation if not appropriately protected from the environment. Composite materials having polymeric matrices are susceptible to degradation from heat, sunlight, ozone, atomic oxygen (in space), moisture, solvents (chemicals...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 October 2011
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mnm2.t53060013
EISBN: 978-1-62708-261-7
...) or hexagonal close-packed (hcp) structure, depending on the locations of atoms on the close-packed third layer. Source: Ref 2.4 Fig. 2.16 Schematic diagram and atomic arrangements in grains and grain boundaries Fig. 2.17 Relative orientation of adjacent grains Fig. 2.32 Nickel...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 July 2009
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.bcp.t52230151
EISBN: 978-1-62708-298-3
...Abstract Abstract This chapter provides an overview of the physical metallurgy of beryllium, discussing phases and phase transformations, physical and mechanical properties, heat treatment, and alloying. It explains how the atomic structure of beryllium, particularly its sp hybrid state...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mfadr7.t91110285
EISBN: 978-1-62708-247-1
... for the failing BLB pass gate transistor. Figure 55 Atomic Force Microscope Scanning capacitance cross section shows the topographical image (a) and scanning capacitance image (b) of the failing transistor and neighboring passing transistor. An area of dopant depletion is seen in the failing transistor...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mfadr7.t91110485
EISBN: 978-1-62708-247-1
...) Abstract Abstract Scanning Probe Microscope (SPM) has an increasing important role in the development of nanoscale semiconductor technologies. This article presents a detailed discussion on various SPM techniques including Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM), Scanning Kelvin Probe Microscopy, Scanning...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.emea.t52240041
EISBN: 978-1-62708-251-8
... atoms to diffuse to the dislocations and again form atmospheres that pin dislocation movement. alloying elements yield strength pure metals substitutional solid solutions interstitial solid solutions relative size factor chemical affinity factor relative valency factor lattice type factor...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.emea.t52240063
EISBN: 978-1-62708-251-8
...Abstract Abstract Diffusion is the movement of atoms through the crystalline lattice. This chapter discusses the two main types of diffusion that can occur in solids: interstitial diffusion and substitutional diffusion. It describes Fick's first and second laws of diffusion, with emphasis...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.emea.t52240265
EISBN: 978-1-62708-251-8
...Abstract Abstract Creep occurs in any metal or alloy at a temperature where atoms become sufficiently mobile to allow the time-dependent rearrangement of structure. This chapter begins with a section on creep curves, covering the three distinct stages: primary, secondary, and tertiary...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.emea.t52240625
EISBN: 978-1-62708-251-8
...Abstract Abstract This appendix explains how to calculate atomic packing factors, lattice parameters, and coordination numbers for cubic crystal structures, including simple, body-centered, and face-centered cubic systems. It also addresses hexagonal close-packed systems. atomic packing...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.fdsm.t69870105
EISBN: 978-1-62708-344-7
... and identifies one that best treats the general case. The chapter also defines two important factors, the triaxiality factor and the multiaxiality factor, and presents the results of an extensive study to determine how the two factors are related. One of the more interesting findings is that the atomic structure...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.fdsm.t69870375
EISBN: 978-1-62708-344-7
...-temperature fatigue testing Fig. A.48 Torsion of a solid bar Fig. A.12 Point defects. (a) Vacancy. (b) Interstitial. (c) Foreign atom. Source: Ref A.22 Fig. A.33 Representation of relative tensile strength and ductility of ausformed steels (highly deformed) compared...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 October 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ciktmse.t56020001
EISBN: 978-1-62708-389-8
... and their relevance in design and manufacturing. It begins with a review of compositional impurities, the physical arrangement of atoms in solid solution, and the factors that determine maximum solubility. It then describes different types of structural imperfections, including point, line, and planar defects...