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atomic structure

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Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 December 2020
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.phtbp.t59310001
EISBN: 978-1-62708-326-3
... Abstract The building block of all matter, including metals, is the atom. This chapter initially provides information on atomic bonding and the crystal structure of metals and alloys, followed by a description of three crystal lattice structures of metals: face-centered cubic, hexagonal close...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 October 2011
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mnm2.t53060013
EISBN: 978-1-62708-261-7
... Abstract This chapter introduces many of the key concepts on which metallurgy is based. It begins with an overview of the atomic nature of matter and the forces that link atoms together in crystal lattice structures. It discusses the types of imperfections (or defects) that occur in the crystal...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cfap.t69780028
EISBN: 978-1-62708-281-5
... Abstract This article describes in more detail the fundamental building-block level, atomic, then expands to a discussion of molecular considerations, intermolecular structures, and finally supermolecular issues. An explanation of important thermal, mechanical, and physical properties...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.pdub.t53420363
EISBN: 978-1-62708-310-2
... can exist as single crystals, they are more commonly polycrystalline solids with crystalline grains of repeating atomic packing sequences. Periodic crystalline order is the equilibrium structure of all solid metals. Crystalline structures are a dominant factor in determining mechanical properties...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.emea.t52240003
EISBN: 978-1-62708-251-8
... originated as a verb meaning to seek, search after, or inquire about. Today, a metal is defined as any element that tends to lose electrons from the outer shells of its atoms. The resulting positive ions are held together in crystalline structure by the cloud of these free electrons in what is known...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mmfi.t69540357
EISBN: 978-1-62708-309-6
... of 10 to 30 GPa (1 to 5 ksi × 10 3 ) would be required for the onset of slip deformation. In reality, however, metals typically have dislocations in the crystal structure, and slip can occur by the motion of relatively few atoms at a given instance ( Fig. A1.2b and c ). The presence of dislocations...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.stg2.t61280211
EISBN: 978-1-62708-267-9
... of the MC carbides present in the structure also are dissolved. The carbon from this dissolution process does not automatically dissipate. Rather, carbon atoms are available extensively in the solution-treated alloy. Upon rapid cooling of the heat treated article to room or ambient temperatures, the carbon...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cfap.t69780343
EISBN: 978-1-62708-281-5
... spectroscopy is second only to IR spectroscopy in its importance as an analytical tool available to the polymer analyst. Nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy reveals the number of types of hydrogen or carbon atom and their surrounding electronic environments. The structure of an unknown polymer can...
Book Chapter

By Kenneth A. Walsh
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 July 2009
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.bcp.t52230001
EISBN: 978-1-62708-298-3
... Abstract Beryllium, despite its relatively simple atomic structure, possesses a wide range of useful engineering properties. It has the highest strength-to-weight ratio and modulus of elasticity among structural metals and is an important alloy addition in copper, nickel, and aluminum alloys...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 July 2009
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.bcp.t52230151
EISBN: 978-1-62708-298-3
... Abstract This chapter provides an overview of the physical metallurgy of beryllium, discussing phases and phase transformations, physical and mechanical properties, heat treatment, and alloying. It explains how the atomic structure of beryllium, particularly its sp hybrid state, contributes...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.fibtca.t52430027
EISBN: 978-1-62708-253-2
... Abstract This chapter describes the metallurgy, composition, and properties of steels and other alloys. It provides information on the atomic structure of metals, the nature of alloy phases, and the mechanisms involved in phase transformations, including time-temperature effects and the role...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.spsp2.t54410017
EISBN: 978-1-62708-265-5
... the eight corners of the unit cell therefore accounts for one of the two atoms in a bcc unit cell. Fig. 3.2 Body-centered cubic (bcc) crystal structure. A 2 is structure (Strukturbericht) symbol, and W is prototype metal with bcc structure. Ferrite in steel is bcc. Source: Ref 3.1...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.tpmpa.t54480051
EISBN: 978-1-62708-318-8
... Abstract This chapter discusses the basic principles of alloying and their practical application in the production of titanium mill products and engineered parts. It begins with a review of the atomic and crystal structure of titanium and the conditions for interstitial and substitutional...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 October 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.lmub.t53550511
EISBN: 978-1-62708-307-2
.... This chapter describes the applications, properties, and behaviors of some of the more widely used structural ceramics, including alumina, aluminum titanate, silicon carbide, silicon nitride, zirconia, zirconia-toughened alumina (ZTA), magnesia-partially stabilized zirconia (Mg-PSZ), and yttria-tetragonal...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.pdub.t53420303
EISBN: 978-1-62708-310-2
..., the crystal structure (size) transforms to the less densely packed ferrite phase. At faster cooling rates, the formation of ferrite is suppressed, while formation of martensite is enhanced by the shear displacement of iron atoms into an interstitial, supersaturated solid solution of iron and carbon...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.msisep.t59220085
EISBN: 978-1-62708-259-4
....2003.12.009 5. Hirata A. , Fujita T. , Wen Y.R. , Schneibel J.H. , Liu C.T. , and Chen M.W. , Atomic Structure of Nanoclusters in Oxide-Dispersion-Strengthened Steels , Nature Mater. , Vol 10 , ( No. 12 ), Oct 23 , 2011 , p 922 – 26 10.1038/nmat3150 6...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ttg2.t61120095
EISBN: 978-1-62708-269-3
... Abstract This chapter examines the process, structure, and property relationships in titanium alloys. It provides information on microstructures and strengthening mechanisms, the role of alloy and interstitial elements, and the effect of composition, processing, and surface treatments...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ems.t53730001
EISBN: 978-1-62708-283-9
... that are not. A crystal structure is one that repeats itself over long distances. Most solids are crystal structures, or crystalline. The atoms, ions, or molecules are arranged in repeating three-dimensional patterns or lattices. The smallest characteristic piece of the repeating pattern is called the unit cell...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cub.t66910237
EISBN: 978-1-62708-250-1
..., and cobalt and their alloys; polymers; and other nonmetallic materials, including rubber, carbon and graphite, and woods. corrosion characteristics structural materials corrosion applications materials selection carbon steels weathering steels alloy steels nickel copper aluminum titanium...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2007
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.smnm.t52140009
EISBN: 978-1-62708-264-8
... in ferrite and austenite is a difference in their atomic structures. As illustrated in Fig. 1.2 and 1.4 , the iron atoms are arranged with a body-centered cubic (bcc) crystal structure in ferrite and an fcc crystal structure in austenite. In both ferrite grains and austenite grains, this atomic structure...