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atomic packing factors

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Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.emea.t52240625
EISBN: 978-1-62708-251-8
... Abstract This appendix explains how to calculate atomic packing factors, lattice parameters, and coordination numbers for cubic crystal structures, including simple, body-centered, and face-centered cubic systems. It also addresses hexagonal close-packed systems. atomic packing factors...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 December 2020
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.phtbp.t59310001
EISBN: 978-1-62708-326-3
... atoms belonging to a unit cell is four. Face-centered cubic metals pack the atoms into a three-dimensional crystal structure that is very efficient at utilizing the available space within the structure. The atomic packing factor (the volume of atoms belonging to the unit cell divided by the volume...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 April 2020
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.bpapp.t59290009
EISBN: 978-1-62708-319-5
.... and Dunkley J.J. , Atomization of Melts for Powder Production and Spray Deposition , Clarendon Press , Oxford, U.K. , 1994 A powder consists of many particles; each particle is similar to grains of sand in terms of packing and flow. The scanning electron microscope (SEM) is an...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.emea.t52240041
EISBN: 978-1-62708-251-8
... eliminate the yield-point problem. If the sizes of the solute and solvent atoms differ by less than 15%, the metals are said to have a favorable size factor for solid-solution formation. Each of the metals will be able to dissolve an appreciable amount of the other metal, on the order of 10% or more. If...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2007
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.smnm.t52140063
EISBN: 978-1-62708-264-8
... factors that determine diffusion rates and distances, including time, temperature, and the relative size of the atoms involved. It also describes two heat treating methods, carburizing and decarburizing, where carbon diffusion plays a central role. atom migration carburizing decarburizing...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.emea.t52240003
EISBN: 978-1-62708-251-8
... repeating atomic packing sequences. Periodic crystalline order is the equilibrium structure of all solid metals. Crystalline structures are a dominant factor in determining mechanical properties, and crystal structures also play an important role in the magnetic, electrical, and thermal properties. The...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.emea.t52240221
EISBN: 978-1-62708-251-8
... preexisting flaws. Brittle failures normally initiate as a result of cleavage that occurs by breaking of the atomic bonds. Brittle failures are characterized by rapid crack propagation, with less energy expenditure than in ductile fractures. Factors promoting brittle failures are: High yield strengths...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mfub.t53740325
EISBN: 978-1-62708-308-9
... coatings and various pack cementation and deposition processes. It also discusses the selection and use of industrial paints and paint application methods. buffing cleaning coating honing mass finishing SURFACE FINISHES AND COATINGS are used in a variety of ways to improve the material...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2010
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.sap.t53000025
EISBN: 978-1-62708-313-3
... boundaries ( Ref 2 ). Topologically close-packed phases are undesirable, and considerable effort is made to avoid compositional ranges that will cause their precipitation during heat treatment or service. In these phases, the atoms are close-packed in layers that are separated by intervening layers of...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cub.t66910363
EISBN: 978-1-62708-250-1
... inspection and quality assurance. The next section discusses the methods by which metals, and in some cases their alloys, can be applied to almost all other metals and alloys: electroplating, electroless plating, hot dipping, thermal spraying, cladding, pack cementation, vapor deposition, ion implantation...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.secwr.t68350095
EISBN: 978-1-62708-315-7
... the formation of carbon monoxide (CO). In the heated box, charcoal forms carbon dioxide (CO 2 ), which converts to CO in an environment with an excess of carbon. The CO then forms atomic carbon at the component surface and diffuses into the part. The pack-carburization process is of little commercial...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.pdub.t53420015
EISBN: 978-1-62708-310-2
... atoms. It discusses the difference between interstitial and substitutional solid solutions and the factors that determine the type of solution that two metals are likely to form. It also addresses the development of intermediate phases, the role of free energy, transformation kinetics, liquid-to-solid...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.pdub.t53420171
EISBN: 978-1-62708-310-2
... associated with intermediate phases. It then discusses the difference between ordered and disordered phases and how they are accounted for on phase diagrams. It describes how the atoms in a disordered solution may arrange themselves into an ordered array, forming a superlattice in the process of cooling, and...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 April 2020
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.bpapp.t59290169
EISBN: 978-1-62708-319-5
... the events that are contributing to sintering densification, followed by a discussion on the driving forces, such as surface energy, and high-temperature atomic motion as well as the factors affecting these processes. The process of microstructure evolution in sintering is then described, followed by...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 October 2011
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mnm2.t53060013
EISBN: 978-1-62708-261-7
... positive ion is equivalent. Ideally, a symmetrical ion is produced when a valence electron is removed from the metal atom. As a result of this ion symmetry, metals tend to form highly symmetrical, close-packed crystal structures. They also have a large number of nearest neighboring atoms (usually 8–12...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 1999
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.lmcs.t66560361
EISBN: 978-1-62708-291-4
... Abstract This chapter discusses the thermally induced changes that occur on the surface of steel exposed to different environments. It explains how oxide scales form during heat treating and how factors such as temperature, composition, and surface finish affect growth rates, grain structure...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.emea.t52240063
EISBN: 978-1-62708-251-8
... concentration gradient, because the atomic packing is not as dense in the bcc structure. The lower atomic packing factor in the bcc structure (0.68) as compared to the fcc structure (0.74) allows easier diffusion in the bcc lattice. Various mechanisms have been proposed to explain substitutional diffusion...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 April 2020
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.bpapp.t59290139
EISBN: 978-1-62708-319-5
... Abstract Binder removal approaches involve various combinations of heat, solvents, vacuum, and pressure. In each variant, the goal is binder removal without component damage. This chapter addresses the factors that control success, showing how process decisions depend on the powder and binder...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 April 2020
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.bpapp.t59290035
EISBN: 978-1-62708-319-5
... jetting. The chapter provides a detailed description of these constituents. The requirements of a binder as well as the factors determining the physical and thermal properties of polymers are discussed. Then, two factors associated with solvation of polymers, namely solubility parameter and wetting, are...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ffub.t53610209
EISBN: 978-1-62708-303-4
... Abstract This chapter provides information and data on the fatigue and fracture properties of steel, aluminum, and titanium alloys. It explains how microstructure, grain size, inclusions, and other factors affect the fracture toughness and fatigue life of these materials and the extent to which...