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atomic number

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Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ems.t53730159
EISBN: 978-1-62708-283-9
... Abstract This appendix contains a table listing the symbol, atomic number, atomic weight, melting temperature, density, atomic radius, and crystal structure of various elements. chemical elements atomic number atomic weight density atomic radius ...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 April 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.imub.t53720233
EISBN: 978-1-62708-305-8
... advantages for improved contrast on low atomic number materials, discrimination between isotopes, or inspection of radioactive specimens. electromagnetic radiation gamma ray radiography neutron radiography radiation gaging real-time inspection X-ray radiography RADIOGRAPHY is a nondestructive...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.emea.t52240625
EISBN: 978-1-62708-251-8
... Abstract This appendix explains how to calculate atomic packing factors, lattice parameters, and coordination numbers for cubic crystal structures, including simple, body-centered, and face-centered cubic systems. It also addresses hexagonal close-packed systems. atomic packing factors...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 April 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.imub.t53720139
EISBN: 978-1-62708-305-8
... , 1986 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.9781627081788 X-ray fluorescence is capable of the detection and quantification of elements with atomic number 5 or higher. Older energy dispersive units with beryllium window detectors are limited to atomic number 11 or higher. Typical uses are: Qualitative...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mfadr7.t91110434
EISBN: 978-1-62708-247-1
...-ray, or it may be carried away by another electron, known as an Auger electron, emitted from an outer shell. The Auger effect tends to dominate for low atomic number elements, and so relatively few x-rays are produced for light elements. The emitted x-rays and Auger electrons have energy...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mgppis.t60400149
EISBN: 978-1-62708-258-7
... common, and very small features can be observed in the sample that cannot be seen in a light microscope (e.g., precipitates as small as 2 nm in diameter). Electrons also interact with the atoms in the steel sample in a number of ways, and, as a result, additional useful information can be generated...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.msisep.t59220085
EISBN: 978-1-62708-259-4
... is excited by the beam. This is a key concept in electron microscopy and should be kept in mind. The sample volume excited by an impinging electron beam depends on the electron energy (measured by the acceleration voltage) and the atomic number of the sample material (Z), as indicated in Fig. 6.2...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ems.t53730001
EISBN: 978-1-62708-283-9
... to quickly see which chemical elements are similar to others. The elements are arranged in order of increasing atomic number. Fig. 1.1 The periodic table of the elements. The atomic numbers are in the upper right corners and the atomic wts (in amu) at the bottom. The table includes periods...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.fibtca.t52430107
EISBN: 978-1-62708-253-2
... as a function of elemental composition. This makes the BSE mode a powerful compositional analysis tool for the material under investigation. The intensity of the BSE signal is a function of the average atomic number ( Z ) of the specimen. Heavier elements produce more BSEs. Areas of the sample with a higher...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cfap.t69780383
EISBN: 978-1-62708-281-5
... the surface, are used to locate specific areas for more detailed study. Backscattered electron images, involving higher-energy electrons that have undergone scattering processes before escaping from the sample, reveal atomic number contrast and crystallographic information. Auger maps, obtained by measuring...
Book Chapter

By Kenneth A. Walsh
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 July 2009
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.bcp.t52230001
EISBN: 978-1-62708-298-3
... of the first short period of the periodic table. Beryllium has an atomic number of 4 and an atomic weight of 9.012182, and it is unique among the elements of even atomic number in that it has a single, stable, naturally occurring isotope ( 4 Be 7 ). Table 1.1 shows the radioisotopes for beryllium. Its...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 July 2009
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.bcp.t52230151
EISBN: 978-1-62708-298-3
...)90011-X Beryllium is an unusual metal in many ways. Its atomic number is 4, making it the only element with an even atomic number that has only one stable isotope. This stable isotope has mass number 9, but a number of radioactive isotopes are known, and they have mass numbers that range from 6...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2007
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.smnm.t52140063
EISBN: 978-1-62708-264-8
..., if the atoms are able to jump back and forth fast enough. Notice in the periodic table in the inside back cover that the atomic number of a carbon atom is much less than that of an iron atom, only 12 versus 26. This means that the carbon atom is much smaller than an iron atom. Mainly for this reason, a carbon...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1999
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cmp.t66770011
EISBN: 978-1-62708-337-9
... and provides information regarding atomic number and size. It can be noted that the elements with the larger atomic sizes, or smaller atomic number, need only be present in amounts of less than 0.1 vol% to promote oxidation, whereas significantly more is needed of those elements whose atoms are of a similar...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mfadr7.t91110413
EISBN: 978-1-62708-247-1
..., they may undergo substantial lateral scattering and are generally not good for high resolution imaging. However, backscattered imaging is useful for picking out areas of high atomic number materials on a sample since the backscattered electron signal is strongly dependent on the atomic number of the sample...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.tpmpa.t54480051
EISBN: 978-1-62708-318-8
... electron core; the outer electrons are the valence electrons. The electrons revolve within this atom in orbits, or shells. Each shell, referred to as an energy level, can accept only a limited number of electrons. This number varies according to well-defined physical laws. For example, the 1 s...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ems.9781627082839
EISBN: 978-1-62708-283-9
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.pdub.t53420239
EISBN: 978-1-62708-310-2
... in the diffraction pattern. This is not true for neutron diffraction patterns. A similar difficulty arises when the components of a system are closely comparable in atomic number, so that it is difficult to distinguish one species from the other with X-ray or electron diffraction but not with neutron diffraction...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.spsp2.t54410001
EISBN: 978-1-62708-265-5
... Auger Electron Spectroscopy (AES) is capable of showing thin concentrations of low atomic number elements exposed at fracture surfaces in specimens broken under high vacuum in Auger electron microscopes. The latter experimental technique has been very important in showing impurity atom segregation...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.tpmpa.t54480031
EISBN: 978-1-62708-318-8
... of the elementary particles neutrons and protons; the proton number is the same number as the number of electrons orbiting the nucleus), which is surrounded by a cloud of one or more rapidly moving electrons. Electrons are extremely small atomic particles having a specific negative charge. The total charge...