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atomic number

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Image
Published: 01 November 2019
Figure 9 Variation in backscatter emission with atomic number Z. More
Image
Published: 01 April 2013
Fig. 13 Scanning Auger mapping of elements, including some of low atomic number, in a foreign particle on an integrated circuit. Note also the ability to distinguish between elemental silicon and silicon oxide due to bonding effects on Auger energies. (a) Secondary electron image of particle More
Image
Published: 01 December 1999
Fig. 1.7 The limiting amount of added element (of atomic number less than that of iron) to promote internal oxidation. See also Fig. 1.2(b) . Adapted from Ref 6 Element Atomic number Atomic size relative to iron, % Interstitial elements  Hydrogen 1 –58  Carbon 6 –34 More
Image
Published: 01 August 2013
Fig. 1.1 The periodic table of the elements. The atomic numbers are in the upper right corners and the atomic wts (in amu) at the bottom. More
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ems.t53730159
EISBN: 978-1-62708-283-9
... Abstract This appendix contains a table listing the symbol, atomic number, atomic weight, melting temperature, density, atomic radius, and crystal structure of various elements. chemical elements atomic number atomic weight density atomic radius Elementary Materials Science William...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 April 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.imub.t53720233
EISBN: 978-1-62708-305-8
... advantages for improved contrast on low atomic number materials, discrimination between isotopes, or inspection of radioactive specimens. electromagnetic radiation gamma ray radiography neutron radiography radiation gaging real-time inspection X-ray radiography RADIOGRAPHY is a nondestructive...
Image
Published: 01 December 2008
Fig. 8.3 The number of atoms and the ratio of atoms on the outermost layer forming a close-packed cluster. (The number of atoms on the outermost layer exceeds 50% of the total composing atoms in a smaller cluster than the type of a regular icosahedron of i = 6.) More
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 April 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.imub.t53720139
EISBN: 978-1-62708-305-8
... number 5 or higher. Older energy dispersive units with beryllium window detectors are limited to atomic number 11 or higher. Typical uses are: Qualitative and quantitative chemical analysis for major and minor elements in metals and alloys Determination of composition and thickness of thin...
Image
Published: 01 August 2018
Fig. 6.2 Schematic presentation of the volume in a sample that is excited by the incident electron beam, as a function of material atomic number (Z) and beam acceleration voltage (V), and thus energy (E). In some cases, the sampled volume may have a much larger diameter than the incident beam More
Image
Published: 01 April 2013
Fig. 12 Scanning Auger identification of elements, including some of low atomic number, present in several phases in a copper-beryllium alloy. (a) Secondary electron image showing inclusions. (b-e) Auger spectra obtained from the indicated microstructural features. (b) The long rod shaped More
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mfadr7.t91110434
EISBN: 978-1-62708-247-1
... an outer shell electron drops down, thereby releasing energy. This energy may be released as an x-ray, or it may be carried away by another electron, known as an Auger electron, emitted from an outer shell. The Auger effect tends to dominate for low atomic number elements, and so relatively few x-rays...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mgppis.t60400149
EISBN: 978-1-62708-258-7
... in diameter). Electrons also interact with the atoms in the steel sample in a number of ways, and, as a result, additional useful information can be generated. In fact, the different electron microscopes mentioned previously are designed to take advantage of these electron/metal interactions. The various...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ems.t53730001
EISBN: 978-1-62708-283-9
... are arranged in order of increasing atomic number. Fig. 1.1 The periodic table of the elements. The atomic numbers are in the upper right corners and the atomic wts (in amu) at the bottom. The table includes periods (typically horizontal) and groups (typically vertical). Elements in groups share...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.msisep.t59220085
EISBN: 978-1-62708-259-4
... the electron beam impinges the sample surface is excited by the beam. This is a key concept in electron microscopy and should be kept in mind. The sample volume excited by an impinging electron beam depends on the electron energy (measured by the acceleration voltage) and the atomic number of the sample...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.fibtca.t52430107
EISBN: 978-1-62708-253-2
... of the sample but provides image contrast as a function of elemental composition. This makes the BSE mode a powerful compositional analysis tool for the material under investigation. The intensity of the BSE signal is a function of the average atomic number ( Z ) of the specimen. Heavier elements produce more...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2007
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.smnm.t52140063
EISBN: 978-1-62708-264-8
..., if the atoms are able to jump back and forth fast enough. Notice in the periodic table in the inside back cover that the atomic number of a carbon atom is much less than that of an iron atom, only 12 versus 26. This means that the carbon atom is much smaller than an iron atom. Mainly for this reason, a carbon...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.emea.t52240625
EISBN: 978-1-62708-251-8
... Abstract This appendix explains how to calculate atomic packing factors, lattice parameters, and coordination numbers for cubic crystal structures, including simple, body-centered, and face-centered cubic systems. It also addresses hexagonal close-packed systems. atomic packing factors...
Book Chapter

By Kenneth A. Walsh
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 July 2009
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.bcp.t52230001
EISBN: 978-1-62708-298-3
... of the first short period of the periodic table. Beryllium has an atomic number of 4 and an atomic weight of 9.012182, and it is unique among the elements of even atomic number in that it has a single, stable, naturally occurring isotope ( 4 Be 7 ). Table 1.1 shows the radioisotopes for beryllium. Its...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.spsp2.t54410001
EISBN: 978-1-62708-265-5
..., electrons termed Auger electrons ( Ref 1.5 ). These low energy electrons come from very close to specimen surfaces, on the order of a few nanometers, and therefore Auger Electron Spectroscopy (AES) is capable of showing thin concentrations of low atomic number elements exposed at fracture surfaces...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 July 2009
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.bcp.t52230151
EISBN: 978-1-62708-298-3
... Transformations Beryllium is an unusual metal in many ways. Its atomic number is 4, making it the only element with an even atomic number that has only one stable isotope. This stable isotope has mass number 9, but a number of radioactive isotopes are known, and they have mass numbers that range from 6 to 11...