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atomic force microscopy

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Published: 01 August 2018
Fig. 12.12 Pearlite highly deformed during wire drawing. (a) Atomic force microscopy image. (b) Relief along the line indicated in (a) and some measurements of the lamellae spacing after wire drawing. Etchant: nital 2%. See also Ref 7 . Courtesy of M. S. Andrade, CETEC, Belo Horizonte, MG More
Image
Published: 01 August 2018
Fig. 12.42 Atomic force microscopy image of a high silicon electric steel showing the size, shape, and distribution of manganese sulfide inclusions in this steel. The inclusions are smaller than 250 nm. See also Ref 7 . Courtesy of M.S. Andrade, CETEC, Belo Horizonte, MG, Brazil. More
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mfadr7.t91110485
EISBN: 978-1-62708-247-1
... Abstract Scanning Probe Microscope (SPM) has an increasing important role in the development of nanoscale semiconductor technologies. This article presents a detailed discussion on various SPM techniques including Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM), Scanning Kelvin Probe Microscopy, Scanning...
Image
Published: 01 August 2018
. (b) and (c) Atomic force microscopy showing the relief of the martensite plates and the absence of any discontinuity when the lines cross the austenite-martensite interface. Courtesy of H.K.D.H. Bhadeshia, Cambridge University, England. More information in Ref 23 . More
Image
Published: 01 August 2018
right corner, a colony in which the lamellae are almost parallel to the metallography plane can be observed. Atomic force microscopy. The scale on the top right refers to the vertical dimensions in the sample. Etchant: nital 2%. Courtesy of M. S. Andrade, CETEC-MG, Brazil. More
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.msisep.t59220085
EISBN: 978-1-62708-259-4
..., and laser scanning microscopes. atom probe tomography atomic force microscopy laser scanning confocal microscopy metallography scanning electron microscopy scanning transmission electron microscopy transmission electron microscopy Although optical microscopy is based on the interaction...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.msisep.t59220001
EISBN: 978-1-62708-259-4
... 100 nm–1000 µm Scanning electron microscopy Atom force microscopy 1–1000 µm Optical microscopy Confocal laser microscopy 1–1000 mm Macrography 1.5 Chemical Composition of Steels Besides carbon, which is not always a desirable alloying element, many chemical elements may be present...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 April 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ps.t62440243
EISBN: 978-1-62708-352-2
... and Symbols A A BGA c C CSP CTE DCA DNL E F G G H HAZ g h K K k M MEMS MCM ppm P PADS PCB PTFE Q R RH atomic weight area ball grid array crack length concentration chip-scale package coefficient of thermal (linear) expansion; see also direct chip attach dip-and-look test internal energy or Young s modulus...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.tstap.t56040055
EISBN: 978-1-62708-428-4
... general steps as those of wrought material, that is, sectioning, mounting, planar grinding, polishing, microscopy, and analysis. An exception is that chemical etching of the TSC is not typically done prior to microscopy. As described in other sources, the magnitude and direction of forces during...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 1999
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.lmcs.t66560427
EISBN: 978-1-62708-291-4
... Abstract This appendix is a compilation of terms and definitions related to light microscopy of carbon steels. light microscopy Light Microscopy of Carbon Steels Leonard E. Samuels DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.lmcs.t66560427 Copyright © 1999 ASM International® All rights reserved...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.msisep.t59220101
EISBN: 978-1-62708-259-4
... varies considerably. For instance, in the top right corner, a colony in which the lamellae are almost parallel to the metallography plane can be observed. Atomic force microscopy. The scale on the top right refers to the vertical dimensions in the sample. Etchant: nital 2%. Courtesy of M. S. Andrade...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.tm.t52320225
EISBN: 978-1-62708-357-7
.... For example, because B ≈ 0.8 × 10 11 J/m 3 , and V ≈ 10 –5 m 3 /mol for Al alloys, it can be estimated that Δ G globe ≈ 36 kJ/mol if the difference of atomic radii is Δ r / r = 0.1. Because this value is the energy equal to the driving force of precipitation, it is difficult to form globular particles...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.msisep.t59220403
EISBN: 978-1-62708-259-4
...) and changes the orientation of the platelets to parallel to the wire axis in such a way that very reasonable ductility can be preserved. The hardening potential of these structures is presented in Fig. 12.13 . Fig. 12.12 Pearlite highly deformed during wire drawing. (a) Atomic force microscopy image...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 1999
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.lmcs.9781627082914
EISBN: 978-1-62708-291-4
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.spsp2.t54410373
EISBN: 978-1-62708-265-5
... dislocation or twin structure of the martensite, the interfacial energy associated with the high density of lath or plate boundaries, and the retained austenite that is invariably present even in low-carbon steels. The supersaturation of carbon atoms provides the driving force for carbide formation; the high...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 April 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.tpsfwea.t59300363
EISBN: 978-1-62708-323-2
... hairs from people of different races? Nanoindentation can answer the question. Atomic force microscopy (see Chapter 3, “Dealing with Friction in Design Engineering,” in this book) can measure the surface texture of individual hairs before and after treatment, and scanning electron microscopy can...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mgppis.t60400245
EISBN: 978-1-62708-258-7
... systems to be used to correlate changes in an experimentally measured quantity with changes in chemical potential. adhesion. Force of attraction between the molecules (or atoms) of two different phases. Contrast with cohesion. adhesive bonding. A materials joining process in which an adhesive, placed...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.pdub.t53420303
EISBN: 978-1-62708-310-2
... due to the misfit of the interstitial solute atoms. At high carbon levels, these stresses can become so severe that the material cracks as the martensite forms. These cracks can range from small microcracks that require microscopy to be detected, to large cracks easily visible to the unaided eye...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mfadr7.t91110563
EISBN: 978-1-62708-247-1
...-450C. This creates a strong, hermetic seal, though it needs a rather wide sealing area of 100s of μm (screen printing is not so precise, and some squish out occurs when bond force is applied). An advantage for glass frit is that the mating surfaces do not need to be as flat as the other methods...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.fdsm.t69870375
EISBN: 978-1-62708-344-7
... of polyethylene. Source: Ref A.35 Fig. A.36 Shanley’s model for demonstrating that Poisson’s ratio can be estimated by regarding atoms as contacting spheres that displace both axially and transversely under uniaxial load, maintaining surface contact. (a) Model of unstressed atomic crystalline...