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atomic emission

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Published: 01 November 2019
Figure 9 Variation in backscatter emission with atomic number Z. More
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 April 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.imub.t53720139
EISBN: 978-1-62708-305-8
.... Such problems sometimes can be overcome by using wavelength dispersive spectrometers, rather than energy dispersive detectors, or by using optical emission spectroscopy. Operating Principles Physical Basis The negatively charged electrons surrounding each atom’s nucleus exist in discrete energy...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.fibtca.t52430107
EISBN: 978-1-62708-253-2
... Abstract This chapter describes some of the most effective tools for investigating boiler tube failures, including scanning electron microscopy, optical emission spectroscopy, atomic absorption spectroscopy, x-ray fluorescence spectroscopy, x-ray diffraction, and x-ray photoelectron...
Image
Published: 01 April 2013
Fig. 1 Excitation of atom in sample by ejection of electrons or photoelectron production, and relaxation of excited atom by electronic transitions and accompanying characteristic x-ray emission. Source: Ref 1 More
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cub.t66910475
EISBN: 978-1-62708-250-1
... constituents Detection limits from 10 ppb to 1%. Detects all elements from lithium (atomic weight, 7) to uranium (atomic weight, 238) and, with specialized equipment, H, N, O, etc. in metals Requires expensive and specialized equipment. Accuracy ±5% of detected level C.5 Emission/mass spectrometry...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mfadr7.t91110434
EISBN: 978-1-62708-247-1
... bombardment of materials are of two types: characteristic and Bremsstrahlung. Characteristic x-rays occur when an incoming high energy electron collides with an atom and ejects an electron from an inner shell leaving a vacancy, see Figure 1 . This vacancy or “inner shell ionization” will be filled when...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cfap.t69780383
EISBN: 978-1-62708-281-5
... is knocked out, the surface atom emits either a characteristic x-ray or an Auger electron. The probability for Auger emission exceeds that for x-ray emission as atomic number decreases. This is one of the reasons why Auger analysis has some advantages for light-element analysis. In addition, as with energy...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mfadr7.t91110180
EISBN: 978-1-62708-247-1
... additional kinetic energy. During scattering and relaxation, this small excess energy will produce phonons (in other words: heat) rather than photons. Heat would produce only atomic optical interaction (absorption and emission) like black body radiation that follows Bose-Einstein statistics...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 July 2009
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.bcp.t52230513
EISBN: 978-1-62708-298-3
... sampling is conducted by taking 100 cm 2 smears (nominally), and beryllium analysis is commonly performed using inductively coupled plasma/atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP/AES). Air sampling is conducted using personal sampling pumps, with filter cassettes placed on the worker’s lapel. The filters...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mfadr7.t91110413
EISBN: 978-1-62708-247-1
... primary beam voltage. However, they require the highest vacuum and are the most expensive. Cold field emission sources are very sensitive to stray gas atoms landing on the tip, so they tend to have unstable current output which makes them unsuitable for x-ray mapping. However, the low energy spread...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.spsp2.t54410001
EISBN: 978-1-62708-265-5
... initially available, finer features now resolvable are often referred to as substructures. The electron microscope can resolve features down to the order of atomic dimensions, around one nanometer (nm), 10 −9 m, or 0.001 μm, and therefore effectively covers the size range of structures below...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 July 2009
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.bcp.t52230107
EISBN: 978-1-62708-298-3
... Abstract This chapter describes the procedures and processes used to chemically analyze beryllium samples. It discusses gravimetric, volumetric, colorimetric, and fluorometric techniques, radiochemical separation and assay, and the use of emission spectrometry and polarographic methods...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2023
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.edfatr.t56090003
EISBN: 978-1-62708-462-8
... emission (TRLEM)-based analysis techniques ( Ref 37 , 38 ). Another possibility that was explored in the late 2000s is near-field scanning photon emission microscopy (NSPEM) ( Ref 39 ), where an optic fiber replaces an atomic force microscopy (AFM) tip for near-field coupling of photons. This produced...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.spsp2.t54410113
EISBN: 978-1-62708-265-5
... This chapter describes the ferritic microstructures that form in carbon steels under continuous cooling conditions. It begins with a review of the Dubé classification system for crystal morphologies. It then explains how cooling-rate-induced changes involving carbon atom diffusion...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cfap.t69780329
EISBN: 978-1-62708-281-5
... photochemical reaction is the absorption of photon energy ( h ν) by a chromophore to create an excited state, denoted by A * ( Ref 7 ): (Eq 1) A + hv → A * The excited state can either relax back to the ground state, A (through emission of a photon or heat), without any changes...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.fibtca.9781627082532
EISBN: 978-1-62708-253-2
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mfadr7.t91110042
EISBN: 978-1-62708-247-1
... to light that can be manipulated and focused with lenses, i.e., the visible light spectrum, plus the infrared and ultraviolet. We will not address non-photonic microscopy, e.g., electron microscopes, focused ion beams, ultrasonic or atomic force microscopes, none of which use photonic light for image...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.tpmpa.t54480051
EISBN: 978-1-62708-318-8
... Abstract This chapter discusses the basic principles of alloying and their practical application in the production of titanium mill products and engineered parts. It begins with a review of the atomic and crystal structure of titanium and the conditions for interstitial and substitutional...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.fibtca.t52430001
EISBN: 978-1-62708-253-2
... NOx emissions Reduced emission of other noxious pollutants such as SOx by desulfurization during combustion Fluidized bed combustion boilers can be further grouped as atmospheric or pressurized units. In atmospheric fluidized bed combustion (AFBC) boilers, the fuel, such as coal...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mfub.t53740373
EISBN: 978-1-62708-308-9
... to guarantee the cleanliness of a powder. Examples include wet analysis, emission or flame spectroscopy, atomic absorption, x-ray diffraction, and x-ray fluorescence. Fig. 5 Effect of oxide inclusions on impact toughness of fully dense 4340 steel processed by hot forging. (The smaller inclusions...