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atom position

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Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.emea.t52240625
EISBN: 978-1-62708-251-8
.... B.1 reveals that each atom located at the corner point of the unit cell belongs to eight unit cells. Therefore, only ⅛ of each atom can be considered to belong to one unit cell. Since there are eight corners, or atomic positions, in the unit cell, the number of atoms belonging to the unit cell...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 October 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ciktmse.t56020001
EISBN: 978-1-62708-389-8
...), and similar valence (similar preferred chemical environment). Not all impurities go into substitutional sites. There are interstitial sites in a given crystal lattice, that is, sites between normal atomic positions. Generally, these sites are small, so only small atoms such as carbon and nitrogen can go...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.stg2.t61280025
EISBN: 978-1-62708-267-9
... sphere models representing the crystal structures of most metals are constructed, the atom positions (seen as the hard spheres in the example of Fig. 3.1 ) are set in a few basic alignments. Face-centered cubic (fcc), body-centered cubic (bcc), and hexagonal close-packed (hcp) more or less cover...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.emea.9781627082518
EISBN: 978-1-62708-251-8
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.pdub.t53420363
EISBN: 978-1-62708-310-2
... THE WORD METAL , derived from the Greek metallon , is believed to have originated as a verb meaning to seek, search after, or inquire about. Today, a metal is defined as any element that tends to lose electrons from the outer shells of its atoms. The resulting positive ions are held together...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.emea.t52240017
EISBN: 978-1-62708-251-8
... temperature. For copper, the amplitude near room temperature is approximately one-half its value near the melting point and approximately twice its value near absolute zero. As the temperature is increased, the lattice vibrations become larger, and atoms have a tendency to jump out of their normal positions...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cub.t66910021
EISBN: 978-1-62708-250-1
... it. Fig. 3 Unit cells and atom positions for (a) face-centered cubic, (b) hexagonal close-packed, and (c) body-centered cubic unit cells. The positions of the atoms are shown as dots at the left of each pair of drawings, while the atoms themselves are shown close to their true effective size by spheres...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 July 2009
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.fdmht.t52060001
EISBN: 978-1-62708-343-0
... positions within the crystalline lattice. Dislocations assist in the atomic motion, as has been described in the Appendix and in Chapter 10 of Ref 1.1 . At high temperature, atomic motion is assisted by the greater vibrational frequency of the atoms about their equilibrium positions. In fact, temperature...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.emea.t52240003
EISBN: 978-1-62708-251-8
... to have originated as a verb meaning to seek, search after, or inquire about. Today, a metal is defined as any element that tends to lose electrons from the outer shells of its atoms. The resulting positive ions are held together in crystalline structure by the cloud of these free electrons in what...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 October 2011
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mnm2.t53060013
EISBN: 978-1-62708-261-7
... of the electron, it was recognized that atoms were not quite “indivisible.” In 1911, Niels Bohr developed a simplified model of the hydrogen atom that consisted of a single electron orbiting a relatively massive, positively charged nucleus. Bohr postulated that the electron moved in a circular orbit around...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 October 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ciktmse.9781627083898
EISBN: 978-1-62708-389-8
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 October 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ciktmse.t56020013
EISBN: 978-1-62708-389-8
..., the likely candidates are Be, Al, and Si. Note that Be is toxic. Start with 100 Mn atoms. Assume there are z Mn 3+ ions, the remaining (100 – z ) being Mn 2+ ions. x = 1.1 implies that there are 110 oxygen atoms. Total positive charge = 3 z + 2(100 – z ) = 200 + z Total negative...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.msisep.t59220085
EISBN: 978-1-62708-259-4
... is normally produced by high voltage pulsing or by laser. The time-of-flight is directly related to the ratio of mass to charge of the ion, and the x-y position information makes it possible to determine the position of the atom (ion) on the original specimen. Thus, it is possible to reconstruct...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.emea.t52240063
EISBN: 978-1-62708-251-8
... their equilibrium positions in the crystal lattice also increase. Thus, atomic vibrations are necessary for diffusion to take place, and as the amplitude of atomic vibrations increases with increasing temperature, the rate of diffusion increases. While random diffusion is constantly occurring in all metals...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.fdsm.t69870375
EISBN: 978-1-62708-344-7
... is replaced by the digit corresponding to its position in the alphabet. For example, A17S became 2117. The last two digits identify the aluminum purity or the specific aluminum alloy. For alloys in use prior to the adoption of the four-digit system, the digits are the same as the numbers in the previous...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.fibtca.t52430107
EISBN: 978-1-62708-253-2
... material is composed of atoms of the respective elements present in it and each atom has a set of electrons revolving around its nucleus in different orbits. Each core electron in an atom has a characteristic binding energy depending on its relative position with respect to the nucleus. If a beam of x-rays...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ems.t53730037
EISBN: 978-1-62708-283-9
...). Source: Ref 4.1 . With increased temperature, atoms vibrate more from their normal lattice positions, making the lattice less regular and decreasing the length of the mean free path. This decreases the drift velocity. Figure 4.2 shows that the resistivity, which is the reciprocal...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ems.t53730001
EISBN: 978-1-62708-283-9
... together as solids. There are four types of bonds: metallic, ionic, covalent, and van der Waals. In metallic bonding, individual atoms lose their valence electrons, which forms a negatively charged “electron gas.” This electron gas holds together the positively charged atoms. In ionic solids...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cub.t66910049
EISBN: 978-1-62708-250-1
..., and the direction in which the reaction (M n + + ne − ↔ M) will proceed Δ G E Spontaneous net reaction 0 0 Equilibrium; no net reaction <0 (negative) >0 (positive) Spontaneous reaction; left to right; plating >0 (positive) <0 (negative) Spontaneous reaction; right to left...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 December 2020
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.phtbp.t59310001
EISBN: 978-1-62708-326-3
... Point defects: A, interstitial atom; B, vacancy; C, foreign atom in lattice site Fig. 7 Section through an edge dislocation (indicated by the symbol ⊥) with an axis perpendicular to the plane of the illustration and line dislocation. (a) Positive edge dislocation, (b) negative edge dislocation...