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atmospheric environments

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Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cub.t66910193
EISBN: 978-1-62708-250-1
...Abstract Abstract Corrosive environments can be broadly classified as atmospheric, underground/soil, water, acidic, alkaline, and combinations of these. Complicating matters is the fact that there are important variables, for example, pH, temperature, and the presence of biological organisms...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2007
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.pmsspmp.t52000059
EISBN: 978-1-62708-312-6
..., and strength. It then describes the relationship between sintered density and corrosion resistance and how it varies for different types of powders and operating environments. The chapter also explains how stainless steel powders respond to different sintering atmospheres, including hydrogen, hydrogen-nitrogen...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 1999
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.caaa.t67870135
EISBN: 978-1-62708-299-0
... are average results for each alloy exposed to seven environments for 10 years. Source: Ref 8 Fig. 5 Maximum pit depth determined with a microscope for 5052-H18 alloy panels exposed to various types of atmospheres. Source: Ref 8 Fig. 6 Average weight losses for seven aluminum alloys...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2007
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.htcma.t52080067
EISBN: 978-1-62708-304-1
..., and N2 environments. It also includes test data showing that nitridation is more severe in a nitrogen atmosphere than an ammonia environment at 1090 °C (2000 °F). References References 1. Metals Handbook , Vol 2 , 8th ed. , American Society For Metals , 1964 , p 149 2. Metals...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ssde.t52310027
EISBN: 978-1-62708-286-0
... in media that promote corrosion. The forms of corrosion covered are uniform corrosion, atmospheric corrosion, localized corrosion, pitting corrosion, crevice corrosion, and grain boundary corrosion. The chapter discusses the influence of material and environmental variables on stress-corrosion cracking...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2017
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.sccmpe2.t55090257
EISBN: 978-1-62708-266-2
... in atmospheric and most aqueous environments ( Ref 9.1 , 9.2 , 9.7 , 9.15 , 9.16 ). The only reports of SCC of pure magnesium have emanated from laboratory tests in which specimens were immersed in very severe SCC solutions ( Ref 9.17 – 9.19 ). Aluminum-containing magnesium alloys have the highest SCC...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 1999
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.caaa.t67870219
EISBN: 978-1-62708-299-0
..., exposure, inspection, and evaluation for conducting exfoliation tests in both laboratory accelerated environments and in natural, outdoor atmospheres. G 129 Practice for Slow Strain Rate Testing to Evaluate the Susceptibility of Metallic Materials to Environmentally Assisted Cracking Describes...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cpi2.t55030005
EISBN: 978-1-62708-282-2
... this occurs in the atmosphere, acid rain is formed, which is a severe environment for metal structures. The movement of the electrons from anodic to cathodic sites in a metal is a result of the difference in Gibbs free energy between the anode (higher level) and the cathode (lower level). This results...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2017
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.sccmpe2.t55090317
EISBN: 978-1-62708-266-2
..., dilute and concentrated alloys are sensitive to somewhat different environments. Unalloyed uranium and dilute alloys are degraded by internal hydrogen or atmospheric moisture (which produces hydrogen by reaction with the surface of the uranium). As alloy content increases, sensitivity to hydrogen...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cub.t66910237
EISBN: 978-1-62708-250-1
... may be organic or inorganic compounds, and they are usually dissolved in aqueous environments. Inhibitors have been added to chemical-conversion treatment baths and to paint primers. Vapor-phase inhibitors are used in confined atmospheres. Some of the most effective inorganic inhibitors...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cub.t66910427
EISBN: 978-1-62708-250-1
... simulated atmosphere tests salt-spray tests immersion tests CORROSION TESTING AND MONITORING are powerful tools in the flight to control corrosion. Testing provides the necessary data for the evaluation and/or selection of existing, alternative, or new materials in various environments. Monitoring...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 1999
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.caaa.t67870179
EISBN: 978-1-62708-299-0
... to the environment. The aluminum surface foils will pit at an average rate of 0.025 to 0.035 mm/year (1.0 to 1.4 mils/year) in seawater and at 0.5 to 0.76 μm/year (0.02 to 0.03 mils/year) in the marine atmosphere (1100, 6061, and 5000 series aluminum alloys). Pits may also be present with depths much greater than...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.aub.t61170432
EISBN: 978-1-62708-297-6
... yield strength in atmospheric and most aqueous environments. The only reports of SCC of commercially pure magnesium have emanated from laboratory tests in which specimens were immersed in very severe corrosive solutions. Aluminum-containing magnesium alloys have the highest SCC susceptibility...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 October 2011
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mnm2.t53060315
EISBN: 978-1-62708-261-7
... environments. Its cold working properties are excellent. In hot working, vanadium must be heated in an inert gas atmosphere. It is suitable for drawing wire. As with more difficult-to-machine stainless steels, speeds must be low and feeds light to moderate. Welding is not difficult but must be shielded from...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 1999
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.caaa.t67870191
EISBN: 978-1-62708-299-0
... formed from two L-shape members need to be continuously welded to seal out the external environment. Fig. 11 Weathering data for anodically coated aluminum in an industrial atmosphere Fig. 10 Number of corrosion pits in anodized aluminum 1100 as a function of coating thickness. Source...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.secwr.t68350011
EISBN: 978-1-62708-315-7
..., or a substance adsorbed on or absorbed in another substance. All structural metals corrode to some extent in natural environments (e.g., the atmosphere, soil, or waters). Bronze, brass, most stainless steels, zinc, and pure aluminum corrode so slowly in service conditions that long service life is expected...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 1999
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.caaa.t67870075
EISBN: 978-1-62708-299-0
..., when corrosion can be appreciable. In natural surface waters and nonsaline atmospheres, the galvanic corrosion of aluminum is rarely significant, although rain runoff from copper and its alloys pit aluminum appreciably. In natural environments, including saline conditions, zinc is anodic...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 July 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.fec.t65940451
EISBN: 978-1-62708-302-7
... by the Corrodkote Procedure • B 457, Method for Measurement of Impedance of Anodic Coatings on Aluminum • B 537, Practice for Rating of Electroplated Panels Subjected to Atmospheric Exposure • B 577, Test Methods for Hydrogen Embrittlement of Copper • B 583, Test Methods for Porosity in Gold...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2017
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.sccmpe2.t55090095
EISBN: 978-1-62708-266-2
...Abstract Abstract This chapter takes a practical approach to the problem of stress-corrosion cracking (SCC) in stainless steels, explaining how different application environments affect different grades of stainless steel. It describes the causes of stress-corrosion cracking in chloride...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2007
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.htcma.t52080201
EISBN: 978-1-62708-304-1
... Fe-20Cr-35Ni-3.25Si (20-35-3.25) tested at 540 °C (1004 °F) for 600 h. The test gas environments are shown in Table 7.6 . Source: Ref 70 Fig. 7.26 Corrosion behavior of alloy 800 in the MPC coal gasification atmosphere (0.5% H 2 S at 900 °C or 1650 °F, and 6.9 MPa or 1000 psig) showing...