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atmosphere control

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Image
Published: 01 March 2006
Fig. 8 Batch atmosphere furnace programmable logic controller (PLC) control system. (a) Furnace function status screen. (b) Furnace recipe control screen. Courtesy of Surface Combustion Inc. More
Image
Published: 01 March 2006
Fig. 4 Components of a typical oxygen probe for controlling carburizing atmospheres. Detail B shows construction of X-cap tip. Source: Ref 3 More
Image
Published: 01 August 2018
Fig. 10.90 AISI 5120 steel carburized in controlled atmosphere at 920 °C (1670 °F)/1 h cooled to 850 °C (1560 °F) and held for 2 h (diffusion treatment) and quenched in oil at 50–60 °C (120–140 °F), followed by tempering at 180 °C (355 °F) for 2 h. Courtesy of L. Queiroz and L.T. Sandor. More
Image
Published: 01 June 1988
Fig. 10.3 Methods for continuous movement of parts through a controlled atmosphere during induction heating. (a) Brazing of brass watchband clips without flux in a forming-gas atmosphere. (b) Fixture using an elevator-pushrod arrangement. From Anon., Lepel Review , Vol 1, No. 10, p 1 ( Ref 2 ) More
Image
Published: 30 April 2024
Fig. 1.8 Components of a typical oxygen probe for controlling carburizing atmospheres. Detail B shows construction of X-cap tip. Source: Ref 5 More
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.pht2.t51440085
EISBN: 978-1-62708-262-4
... Abstract The temperature and atmosphere conditions must be precisely controlled in order to achieve the desired metallurgical results during heat treating operations. In order to ensure the repeatability of operation, a heat treating system must have the necessary sensors, timers, and variable...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 April 2024
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.phtpp.t59380001
EISBN: 978-1-62708-456-7
... utilizes various sensors, timers, and other components to monitor and control the process utilizing various control methods. Heat treating furnaces and equipment can generally be categorized as open fire, atmosphere, vacuum, induction, and flame and are covered in subsequent chapters. The principal...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 April 2024
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.phtpp.t59380135
EISBN: 978-1-62708-456-7
... problem in controlling carbonitriding processes is that the rate of nitrogen pickup depends on the free ammonia content of the furnace atmosphere and not the percentage of ammonia in the inlet gas. Unfortunately, no state-of-the-art sensor for monitoring the free ammonia content of the furnace atmosphere...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 April 2024
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.phtpp.t59380121
EISBN: 978-1-62708-456-7
... atmosphere. Forced fan circulation serves to distribute the atmosphere evenly throughout the furnace and provide temperature uniformity. The liquid flow can be adjusted manually, although it can be a part of an automatically controlled system that provides almost any desired carbon potential. Because...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.pnfn.t65900111
EISBN: 978-1-62708-350-8
.... The bed temperature uniformity is usually well within ±5 °C (10 °F). Atmosphere control, particularly for nitriding where gas dissociation is critical, is somewhat difficult. Fluidized-bed nitriding tends to rely on volume of ammonia gas in relation to workpiece surface area. Because the atmosphere gas...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1999
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cmp.t66770037
EISBN: 978-1-62708-337-9
... mixtures employed necessarily contain decarburizing agents. As long as these agents are present, there is always the possibility that a loss of furnace atmosphere control, for whatever reason, will lead to decarburization of the parts being treated. Decarburization Processes Decarburizing Reactions...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 April 2024
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.phtpp.t59380017
EISBN: 978-1-62708-456-7
... that they load and move parts, add atmospheres and control time cycles, unload, quench, anneal, and temper in a continuous operation. Furnaces may cost anywhere from a few thousand to several million dollars. The choice of which size and type of furnace to use (e.g., direct-fire, atmosphere, or vacuum) depends...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 April 2024
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.phtpp.t59380039
EISBN: 978-1-62708-456-7
... treater must know each type of atmosphere used, when to use it, and what reactions take place inside the furnace during its use. Most important, the heat treater must know how to monitor and control these atmospheres in the furnace. Combustion Products Atmospheres Atmospheres that consist...
Image
Published: 01 June 1988
Fig. 10.4 Adaptations of coils and holding fixtures for introduction or containment of controlled atmospheres. (a) Coil and fixture forming a chamber for an argon atmosphere. (b) Quartz tube-conical coil arrangement for providing a localized protective atmosphere. (c) Atmosphere introduced More
Image
Published: 01 March 2006
Fig. 20 Industrial-gas nitrogen-base atmosphere processes. (a) Protective atmosphere using H 2 and N 2 . (b) Carbon-controlled atmosphere using methanol and natural gas. Source: Ref 13 More
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 April 2024
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.phtpp.t59380185
EISBN: 978-1-62708-456-7
...) for 2 hours at heat. Add 300 CFH of nitrogen to the atmosphere. This makes the furnace safe. 21. Then set the temperature controller at 595 °C (1100 °F). Hold at 595 °C (1100 °F) for 2 hours at heat. 22. Set the furnace temperature to 870 °C (1600 °F). 23. When the furnace is above 760 °C (1400...
Image
Published: 01 August 1999
Fig. 4.13 (Part 2) (e) Decarburized enameling sheet. 0.003C-0.005Si-0.42Mn (wt%). Open-coil annealed in controlled atmosphere. 90 HV. 3% nital. 100×. (f) Decarburized enameling sheet. 0.003C-0.005Si-0.42Mn (wt%). Open-coil annealed in controlled atmosphere. 90 HV. 3% nital. 2000×. (g More
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 April 2024
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.phtpp.t59380191
EISBN: 978-1-62708-456-7
... temperatures between surface and core Atmosphere control Quenching factors Quench temperature Reduces temperature gradients by providing slower quench Results in lower distortion Quench agitation Provides uniform heat transfer across all surfaces of the parts Provides...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.emea.t52240395
EISBN: 978-1-62708-251-8
... ), or from vaporized hydrocarbon liquids. Controlled carburizing atmospheres are produced by blending a carrier gas with an enriching gas, which serves as the source of carbon. The usual carrier endothermic gas is not merely a diluent but also accelerates the carburizing reaction at the surface of the parts...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.pht2.t51440055
EISBN: 978-1-62708-262-4
... radiation heating vacuum furnaces HEAT TREATING FURNACES and related equipment include the heating devices (furnaces), fixtures and/or holding devices, quenching systems, and atmosphere and temperature control systems—all of which are required for the majority of heat treating operations. Specialized...