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applications of refractory metals

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Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.emea.t52240583
EISBN: 978-1-62708-251-8
... the composition, properties, fabrication procedures, advantages and disadvantages, and applications of these refractory metals and their alloys. A comparison of some of the properties of the refractory metals with those of iron, copper, and aluminum is given in a table. The article concludes with a brief section...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 October 2011
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mnm2.t53060315
EISBN: 978-1-62708-261-7
...-temperature oxidizing environments in space. Usage at one time was limited to lamp filaments, electron tube grids, heating elements, and electrical contacts. Today, refractory metals are also found in applications in the aerospace, electronic, nuclear, and chemical processing industries. Molybdenum (Mo...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.aub.t61170308
EISBN: 978-1-62708-297-6
.... In terms of refractory metal consumption, tungsten ranks second to molybdenum, with more than 8500 metric tonnes consumed annually. Cutting tools account for 59% of the total; mill products, 26%; alloying in steels and superalloys, 9%; and chemicals and miscellaneous applications, 6%. Classes of Tungsten...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.aub.t61170596
EISBN: 978-1-62708-297-6
... The various types of composite contact materials generally have a base material of silver, copper, or refractory metals and their carbides. The refractory-base and silver-base contacts are used in switching devices operated in air. Copper-base composite contacts are used in vacuum and oil switching devices...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 July 2009
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.bcp.t52230131
EISBN: 978-1-62708-298-3
...Abstract Abstract This chapter discusses the properties and applications of beryllium intermetallic compounds. It describes the crystal structure of key beryllides, the metals they contain, and important properties such as high-temperature strength, thermal conductivity and expansion, oxidation...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.stg2.t61280041
EISBN: 978-1-62708-267-9
... by application of current to the induction coils surrounding the refractory crucible. When the virgin material has been completely melted (all molten), it out-gasses. The outgassing is monitored until it is complete. At that point, the reactive and revert additions may be made, bringing the charge to its planned...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.aacppa.t51140047
EISBN: 978-1-62708-335-5
..., refractory/metal reactions Nonmetallic in situ MgO, Al 2 O 3 films, clusters, and disperoids; MgAl 2 O 4 films and clusters Melting, alloying: metal transfer turbulence Homogeneous halide salts MgCl 2 -NaCl-CaCl 2 , etc. Poor separation of fluxing reaction products Particle/salt MgCl 2 -NaCl...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.secwr.t68350125
EISBN: 978-1-62708-315-7
... resistance in various environments Coatings Applications Outdoor exposure Oil paints Buildings, vehicles, bridges; maintenance Alkyds Trim paints, metal finishes, product finishes Amino resin-modified alkyds Automotive, metal awnings, aluminum siding Nitrocellulose lacquers...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2010
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.sap.t53000059
EISBN: 978-1-62708-313-3
...Abstract Abstract This chapter discusses the typical compositional ranges of superalloys, the role of major base metals (iron, cobalt, and nickel), and the effects of common alloying additions. It describes how chromium, aluminum, and titanium as well as refractory elements, grain-boundary...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mfub.t53740047
EISBN: 978-1-62708-308-9
... for the application. These alloys are generally melted in crucible furnaces, reverberatory furnaces, or induction furnaces. Molding techniques are similar to those used for ferrous alloys, but, because most nonferrous alloys melt and solidify at lower temperatures than ferrous alloys, metal molds are frequently used...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ems.t53730139
EISBN: 978-1-62708-283-9
... Federation , Princeton, NJ , 1984 13.4 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Integrated_circuit , accessed 2007 Metals usually are cast into molds of sand, another refractory material, or another metal. Steel and iron are cast into sand or refractory molds. Gold, silver, and refractory metals are cast...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.aub.t61170495
EISBN: 978-1-62708-297-6
... of strength and/or ductility in service. Primary and Secondary Carbides Chromium-Rich and Refractory Metal Carbides The occurrence of intermetallic phases in nickel-base alloys carries both good and bad connotations. On the positive side, the nickel-base system has been the most widely...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2007
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.htcma.t52080335
EISBN: 978-1-62708-304-1
... overall corrosion attack. It is believed that the corrosion rate due to general metal wastage by molten salt fluxing is the rate-controlling factor. In mass-burning units, the lower part of the waterwall is generally protected by refractories (e.g., SiC) ( Ref 3 , 7 , 8 , 16 ). The refractories...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mfub.t53740001
EISBN: 978-1-62708-308-9
... (300,000 lb) of steel in about 90 min. Fig. 4 Schematic cross section of a typical electric arc furnace showing the application of different refractories. Source: Ref 3 Because the EAF has a relatively low capital equipment cost and uses steel scrap, this process is used where local...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2010
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.sap.t53000001
EISBN: 978-1-62708-313-3
... unsuitable for most structural applications. Refractory metal alloys retain their mechanical properties at higher temperature because of their high melting points, but they have poor oxidation resistance. The combination of environmental resistance and superior mechanical properties at high temperatures sets...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 1988
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.eihdca.t65220253
EISBN: 978-1-62708-341-6
... cylinders, walking beams, and drive rolls Discharging: extractor forks, power rolls, vee rolls, gravity chutes, and robots. The risk of refractory damage due to heavy metals hitting the furnace lining. Very heavy solid charge materials should be placed carefully into the furnace bath and usually...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2016
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.hpcspa.t54460173
EISBN: 978-1-62708-285-3
... producers to face this challenge and develop specific powders for cold spray applications. Also, the range of metals and alloys that can be cold sprayed is rapidly increasing, which creates a demand for developing new powder manufacturing processes that enable cost-effective production of specific cold...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2010
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.sap.t53000111
EISBN: 978-1-62708-313-3
... in the selection of a superalloy is briefly discussed in this chapter. Fundamental manufacturing considerations are machinability, castability, and forgeability for shaping of the part. Fundamental to the application of superalloys is their environmental resistance. The compositional considerations for both...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.aceg.t68410029
EISBN: 978-1-62708-280-8
... Mechanical Properties Applications 4.13 Semisolid Metal Processes The concept of semisolid metal (SSM) was developed in 1971 at Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT). Significant worldwide research on SSM has been done since then. Many alternative methods or processes have been invented...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.aceg.t68410151
EISBN: 978-1-62708-280-8
... applications. Pouring robots deliver a consistent volume of metal for many general and non-critical applications. The skull or foil in the pouring cup is minimized by keeping the cup inverted over the dip well in between pours, to keep the cup hot. The cups are sometimes partially dipped in the holder...