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ammonia

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Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2017
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.sccmpe2.t55090043
EISBN: 978-1-62708-266-2
...Abstract Abstract This chapter addresses the issue of stress-corrosion cracking (SCC) in carbon and low-alloy steels. It discusses crack initiation, propagation, and fracture in aqueous chloride, hydrogen sulfide, sulfuric acid, hydroxide, ammonia, nitrate, ethanol, methanol, and hydrogen gas...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2007
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.htcma.t52080067
EISBN: 978-1-62708-304-1
... °F) <5 (b) (a) Ref 4 . (b) Ref 41 Nitridation attack of various alloys in an ammonia-bearing environment at 600 °C (1110 °F) for indicated exposure times Table 4.12 Nitridation attack of various alloys in an ammonia-bearing environment at 600 °C (1110 °F) for indicated...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 September 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.gmpm.t51250227
EISBN: 978-1-62708-345-4
...Abstract Abstract Nitriding is a surface hardening heat treatment that introduces nitrogen into the surface of steel while it is in the ferritic condition. Gas nitriding using ammonia as the nitrogen-carrying species is the most commonly employed process and is emphasized in this chapter...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2017
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.sccmpe2.t55090221
EISBN: 978-1-62708-266-2
... to the practice of storing the cartridge cases in horse barns, where they came in contact with ammonia vapors. A further contributing factor was the cold forming operation used to make the cases, which introduced high residual tensile stresses. Sperry ( Ref 7.1 ) provides further discussion of these early SCC...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 September 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.gmpm.t51250245
EISBN: 978-1-62708-345-4
... is a modified form of gas carburizing, rather than a form of nitriding. The modification consists of introducing ammonia into the gas carburizing atmosphere to add nitrogen to the carburized case as it is being produced. Nascent nitrogen forms at the work surface by the dissociation of ammonia in the furnace...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2007
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.pmsspmp.t52000059
EISBN: 978-1-62708-312-6
...-cost net shape fabrication (no machining costs). From the 1950s until the mid-1980s, belt furnaces were the dominant method of industrial sintering of stainless steels in North America. Maximum sintering temperature was approximately 1150 °C (2100 °F), and furnace atmosphere was dissociated ammonia...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.pht2.t51440141
EISBN: 978-1-62708-262-4
... are low enough and capable of holding very uniform temperatures to maintain steels in the ferritic condition. The atmosphere employed consists of ammonia diluted with a carrier gas. In one process, the atmosphere is formed from equal amounts of ammonia and endothermic gas. In another process, a typical...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2007
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.pmsspmp.t52000101
EISBN: 978-1-62708-312-6
...-containing atmosphere, the cooling rate must be high enough to prevent sensitization and intergranular corrosion due to the precipitation of Cr 2 N during cooling. Sintering in dissociated ammonia requires cooling rates from 200 ºC/min (360 ºF/min) to over 450 ºC/min (810 ºF/min), depending on dewpoint...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cpi2.t55030209
EISBN: 978-1-62708-282-2
..., presented at Corrosion/83 , NACE International, 1983 • “ Petroleum Refining Corrosion ,” www.hghouston.com/refining.html#top , October 2000 • Schutt H.U. and Rhodes P.R. , “ Corrosion in the Aqueous Hydrogen Sulfide, Ammonia, Oxygen System ,” Paper 331, presented at Corrosion...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2007
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.pmsspmp.t52000167
EISBN: 978-1-62708-312-6
...) Element Solubility in ferrite, wt% Solubility in austenite, wt% Ca 0.024 0.016 Si 10.9 1.9 Al 30 0.95 Ti 8.7 1.0 Zr 11.7 1.0 In the Ambs ( Ref 6 ) study, sintering in 100% H 2 instead of dissociated ammonia at 1232 °C (2250 °F) reduced drilling time from 82 to 34 s...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2007
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.smnm.t52140189
EISBN: 978-1-62708-264-8
...) for nitriding. With gas nitriding, the nitrogen is introduced using ammonia gas, and the high hardness results from formation of nanometer-sized nitride particles that form from the addition of reactive elements such as chromium, molybdenum, or vanadium to the steel. With nitrocarburizing, the nitrogen...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2007
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.pmsspmp.t52000221
EISBN: 978-1-62708-312-6
... 22 7.0 (a) N2: Nitrogen alloyed. High strength, medium elongation. Sintered at 1288 °C (2350 °F) in dissociated ammonia. L: Low carbon. Lower strength, highest elongation. Sintered at 1288 °C (2350 °F) in partial vacuum. Cooled to avoid nitrogen absorption. HT: Martensitic grade, heat treated...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.fibtca.t52430379
EISBN: 978-1-62708-253-2
... Suspended Solids 7.2.2 Total Dissolved Solids 7.2.3 Iron 7.2.4 Silica 7.2.5 Scale Deposits 7.2.6 Sodium 7.2.7 Dissolved Oxygen 7.2.8 Dissolved Carbon Dioxide 7.2.9 Ammonia 7.2.10 Organic Matter 7.2.11 Oil and Grease 7.2.12 pH 7.2.13 Alkalinity 7.2.14 Hardness 7.4.1...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.aub.t61170457
EISBN: 978-1-62708-297-6
... stress-corrosion cracking Alloy Environment Pure copper Ammonia Sodium nitrite DHP copper Sodium nitrite OFHC copper Sodium nitrite Cu-Zn alloys Ammonia Cu-10Mn Mattsson’s solution Cu-5Zn-5Mn Mattsson’s solution Cu-5Zn-10Mn Mattsson’s solution Cu-20Zn-5Ni...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.pht2.t51440055
EISBN: 978-1-62708-262-4
... Atmospheres Dissociated Ammonia Dry Hydrogen Atmospheres Argon Steam Atmospheres Conduction of heat in a solid such as a metal workpiece is the transfer of heat from one part of the solid to another, under the influence of a temperature gradient and without appreciable displacement...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2007
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.pmsspmp.t52000219
EISBN: 978-1-62708-312-6
... 21.0 20.0 0.27 65.0 ND 29 45 ND 17 6.9 (a) N1: Nitrogen alloyed. Good strength, low elongation. Sintered at 1149 °C (2100 °F) in dissociated ammonia. N2: Nitrogen alloyed. High strength, medium elongation. Sintered at 1288 °C (2350 °F) in dissociated ammonia. L: Low carbon. Lower...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2017
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.sccmpe2.t55090419
EISBN: 978-1-62708-266-2
... chloride • Aluminum sulfate • Ammonia • • • Ammonium biophosphate • • Ammonium chloride • • Ammonium fluosilicate • Ammonium hydroxide...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cpi2.t55030292
EISBN: 978-1-62708-282-2
... acidic and alkaline environments containing sulfur species. Therefore, they have often performed poorly in overhead condensers, compressor aftercoolers, and other sour water applications and other locations where high concentrations of H 2 S and ammonia are encountered in aqueous condensate...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2007
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.pmsspmp.t52000109
EISBN: 978-1-62708-312-6
... of stainless steel is designated as one of four material classes: N1, N2, L, and H. In addition, martensitic 410, processed with carbon addition, sintered in dissociated ammonia, and then heat treated, is designated as 410-HT. A detailed description of the classification system is covered in section 2.2...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.emea.t52240395
EISBN: 978-1-62708-251-8
... are proprietary processes Ion 345–565 650–1050 75–760 3–30 50–70 Alloy steels, nitriding steels, stainless steels Faster than gas nitriding; no white layer; high equipment costs; close case control Nitriding is conducted in atmospheres that decompose ammonia to provide nitrogen to the surface...