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ammonia

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Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2007
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.htcma.t52080067
EISBN: 978-1-62708-304-1
... provides images and data describing the nitridation process and its effects on metals and alloys in high-temperature air as well as NH3-H2O, NH3 and H2-N2-NH3, and N2 environments. It also includes test data showing that nitridation is more severe in a nitrogen atmosphere than an ammonia environment at...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2017
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.sccmpe2.t55090043
EISBN: 978-1-62708-266-2
... Abstract This chapter addresses the issue of stress-corrosion cracking (SCC) in carbon and low-alloy steels. It discusses crack initiation, propagation, and fracture in aqueous chloride, hydrogen sulfide, sulfuric acid, hydroxide, ammonia, nitrate, ethanol, methanol, and hydrogen gas...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2017
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.sccmpe2.t55090221
EISBN: 978-1-62708-266-2
... to the practice of storing the cartridge cases in horse barns, where they came in contact with ammonia vapors. A further contributing factor was the cold forming operation used to make the cases, which introduced high residual tensile stresses. Sperry ( Ref 7.1 ) provides further discussion of these...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2007
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.pmsspmp.t52000221
EISBN: 978-1-62708-312-6
.... High strength, medium elongation. Sintered at 1288 °C (2350 °F) in dissociated ammonia. L: Low carbon. Lower strength, highest elongation. Sintered at 1288 °C (2350 °F) in partial vacuum. Cooled to avoid nitrogen absorption. HT: Martensitic grade, heat treated. Highest strength. Sinter hardened at 1149...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2007
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.pmsspmp.t52000219
EISBN: 978-1-62708-312-6
... ND 17 6.9 (a) N1: Nitrogen alloyed. Good strength, low elongation. Sintered at 1149 °C (2100 °F) in dissociated ammonia. N2: Nitrogen alloyed. High strength, medium elongation. Sintered at 1288 °C (2350 °F) in dissociated ammonia. L: Low carbon. Lower strength, highest elongation. Sintered...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2007
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.pmsspmp.t52000101
EISBN: 978-1-62708-312-6
... precipitation of Cr 2 N during cooling. Sintering in dissociated ammonia requires cooling rates from 200 ºC/min (360 ºF/min) to over 450 ºC/min (810 ºF/min), depending on dewpoint ( section 5.2.4 in Chapter 5 ). Critical cooling rates for sintering in 90%H 2 -10%N 2 are lower ( section 5.2.4 ). Sintering in...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2007
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.pmsspmp.t52000059
EISBN: 978-1-62708-312-6
...-cost net shape fabrication (no machining costs). From the 1950s until the mid-1980s, belt furnaces were the dominant method of industrial sintering of stainless steels in North America. Maximum sintering temperature was approximately 1150 °C (2100 °F), and furnace atmosphere was dissociated ammonia...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2007
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.pmsspmp.t52000167
EISBN: 978-1-62708-312-6
.... Filler wire was 409Nb. They found that dissociated-ammonia-sintered 409L stainless steel was unsuitable for fusion welding due to its high interstitial content, and it led to large amounts of outgassing, excessive pore formation in the weld zone, and martensite formation in the HAZ. Both hydrogen- and...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.pht2.t51440141
EISBN: 978-1-62708-262-4
... modified gas carburizing process, rather than a form of nitriding. The modification consists of introducing ammonia gas (commonly about 2 to 5%) into the carburizing atmosphere in order to add nitrogen to the case as it is being produced. Ammonia in the atmosphere dissociates to form nascent nitrogen at...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2017
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.sccmpe2.t55090419
EISBN: 978-1-62708-266-2
... intergranular SCC (IGSCC), while those environments leading to the formation of a thin film such as liquid ammonia result in transgranular cracks ( Ref 18.17 ). Nevertheless, the relationship between the environment, material, and the SCC response is very complex and can be altered by changes in alloying...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cpi2.t55030209
EISBN: 978-1-62708-282-2
... units (FCCU) and delayed coking units typically require corrosion-inhibition applications. In these units, considerable amounts of hydrocarbon and inorganic gases are produced. Ammonia, hydrogen sulfide, hydrogen cyanide, and other gases formed in the cracking process are removed overhead in...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.aub.t61170457
EISBN: 978-1-62708-297-6
... of the solute and the environment. Table 6 Copper-base alloys that have experienced stress-corrosion cracking Alloy Environment Pure copper Ammonia Sodium nitrite DHP copper Sodium nitrite OFHC copper Sodium nitrite Cu-Zn alloys Ammonia Cu-10Mn Mattsson’s...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2007
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.smnm.t52140189
EISBN: 978-1-62708-264-8
... 570 °C (1060 °F) for nitrocarburizing and 525 °C (980 °F) for nitriding. With gas nitriding, the nitrogen is introduced using ammonia gas, and the high hardness results from formation of nanometer-sized nitride particles that form from the addition of reactive elements such as chromium, molybdenum, or...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.pht2.t51440055
EISBN: 978-1-62708-262-4
... general order of increasing cost: Natural (conventional air) Atmosphere derived from products of combustion in a direct fuel-fired furnace Exothermic (generated) Endothermic (generated) Nitrogen base Vacuum Dissociated ammonia Dry hydrogen (dried bottled gas) Argon (from...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 July 2009
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.bcp.t52230107
EISBN: 978-1-62708-298-3
.... colorimetric methods fluorometric methods gravimetric methods polarographic methods radiometric methods spectrometric methods volumetric methods BERYLLIUM belongs to the ammonium hydroxide analytical group. Beryllium is completely precipitated by ammonia, along with iron, aluminum, and chromium, at...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2007
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.pmsspmp.t52000147
EISBN: 978-1-62708-312-6
... of the sintering atmosphere, dissociated ammonia, and the cooling rate employed in the sintering process. Because most corrosion tests are accelerated tests, the conditions of testing are much more severe than those usually encountered in the field. Obviously, accelerated tests are in the...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.fibtca.t52430379
EISBN: 978-1-62708-253-2
... bicarbonate, carbonate alkalinities, and organic matter liberates carbon dioxide. Carbon dioxide reacts with water to form carbonic acid (H 2 CO 3 ), which is highly corrosive in nature. For plants that contain copper alloys in the condensate or feedwater system, it is essential to monitor ammonia to...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2007
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.pmsspmp.t52000109
EISBN: 978-1-62708-312-6
.... Based on the sintering practice, each grade of stainless steel is designated as one of four material classes: N1, N2, L, and H. In addition, martensitic 410, processed with carbon addition, sintered in dissociated ammonia, and then heat treated, is designated as 410-HT. A detailed description of the...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.emea.t52240395
EISBN: 978-1-62708-251-8
...; close case control Nitriding is conducted in atmospheres that decompose ammonia to provide nitrogen to the surface. The nitrogen diffuses into the steel and also combines with the iron at the surface to form iron nitride according to the reaction: (Eq 21.12) NH 3 → N + 3 H...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cpi2.t55030215
EISBN: 978-1-62708-282-2
... Alloy system Aluminum alloys Carbon steels Copper alloys Nickel alloys Stainless steels Titanium alloys Zirconium alloys Austenitic Duplex Martensitic Amines, aqueous … • • … … … … … … Ammonia, anhydrous … • … … … … … … … Ammonia, aqueous...