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allotropes

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Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.emea.t52240003
EISBN: 978-1-62708-251-8
... on crystalline structure, providing information on space lattices and crystal systems, hexagonal close-packed systems, and face-centered and body-centered cubic systems. The chapter then covers slip systems and closes with a brief section on allotropic transformations that occur at a constant temperature during...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.pdub.t53420015
EISBN: 978-1-62708-310-2
...-to-solid and solid-state phase transformations, and the allotropic nature of metals. interstitial solid solution phase transformations substitutional solid solution THE CRYSTALLINE STATE is an important mode of aggregation of metal atoms. However, assemblies of metal atoms can also exist...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.htgpge.t67320005
EISBN: 978-1-62708-347-8
... ). This form of iron is known as delta (δ) iron. Then, at 1400 °C (2550 °F) ( A 4 , Fig. 2.1 ), iron undergoes an allotropic transformation, that is, rearrangement of atoms in the crystal. The new crystal structure becomes face-centered cubic (fcc) with an iron atom at each of the eight corners and also...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 July 2009
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.bcp.t52230179
EISBN: 978-1-62708-298-3
... of beryllium-niobium. Source: Okamoto and Tanner 1987a Figure 15.18 . This system has only one intermetallic compound, PuBe 13 , which melts congruently at approximately 1950 °C (3540 °F). There is no solid solubility of plutonium in beryllium or of beryllium in any of the allotropic forms...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.pht2.t51440009
EISBN: 978-1-62708-262-4
... enter the lattice (the interstices) of the iron crystal ( Fig. 2 ). A description of this basic mechanism follows. As an elemental metal, pure iron has only limited engineering usefulness despite its allotropy. Carbon is the main alloying addition that capitalizes on the allotropic phenomenon...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.tpmpa.t54480051
EISBN: 978-1-62708-318-8
... strength and allotropic (i.e., different solid-state crystal structures in different temperature ranges) behavior. The titanium atom has a median diameter compared with other elements, and it is relatively light, resulting in a metal with an intermediate density. This relatively low density, when...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.fibtca.t52430027
EISBN: 978-1-62708-253-2
....% carbon is called eutectoid steel; that containing less than 0.8 wt.% carbon is called hypoeutectoid steel; and that having greater than 0.8 wt.% carbon is called hypereutectoid steel. Alloys of iron and carbon having carbon between 2.0 wt.% and 6.67 wt.% are termed cast irons. 3.2.1 Allotropic...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 December 2020
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.phtbp.t59310001
EISBN: 978-1-62708-326-3
... 0.0206 wt% C at 738 °C ( Fig. 27 ). However, iron is allotropic and changes to the austenitic (fcc) phase at higher temperatures. In austenite, the solid solubility of carbon is much higher, with maximum solubility of 2.08 wt% C at 1154 °C (not shown in Fig. 27 ). The higher solubility of carbon...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.aub.t61170100
EISBN: 978-1-62708-297-6
... for long, or “weekend,” holding periods. When the carbides are eliminated, the iron is rapidly cooled to 740 °C (1365 °F). The third step in the annealing treatment, second-stage graphitization (SSG), consists of slow cooling through the allotropic transformation range of the iron. During SSG...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mgppis.t60400023
EISBN: 978-1-62708-258-7
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 December 2020
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.phtbp.t59310029
EISBN: 978-1-62708-326-3
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 October 2011
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mnm2.t53060013
EISBN: 978-1-62708-261-7
... . The maximum solubility limit of carbon in bcc iron (ferrite) is only 0.0206 wt% C at 738 °C ( Fig. 2.33 ). However, it is important to note that iron is allotropic —that is, iron atoms arrange themselves into a face-centered cubic (fcc) crystal structure at higher temperatures. The fcc phase of iron...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 May 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.hma.t59250047
EISBN: 978-1-62708-287-7
... the composition of matter, speculated on the difference between iron and steel. By the late 18th century, Torbern Olof Bergman of Sweden proposed that iron was allotropic (had more than one crystal form) and that steel contained carbon, which made it different from iron. Later, such well-known scientists...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 October 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.lmub.t53550001
EISBN: 978-1-62708-307-2
...) hydraulic press using conventional forging methods. Source: Ref 1.5 Titanium is allotropic, with the hcp crystal structure (α) at low temperatures and a body-centered cubic structure (β) above 882 °C (1620 °F). Alloying elements provide solid-solution strengthening and change the allotropic...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.pdub.t53420001
EISBN: 978-1-62708-310-2
... to describe solid-phase polymorphism of an element. In this regard, iron (along with some other metals) is an allotropic element. Alloying, or mixing of two or more elements, also affects the occurrence of phase changes. For example, the temperature for complete melting (100% liquid phase) of an alloy...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.pht2.t51440231
EISBN: 978-1-62708-262-4
... of titanium, common high-use aluminum, copper, and magnesium alloys are not allotropic; thus, they do not respond in the same way as steels when subjected to heating and cooling treatments (see Chapter 2, “Fundamentals of the Heat Treating of Steel” ). At one time, technologists thought that ancient...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mfadr7.t91110447
EISBN: 978-1-62708-247-1
... of a stainless-steel particle found in a failing product. Stainless steel samples of potential source have been collected for a data base of the fingerprint ( Figure 20). Most common carbon allotropes are diamond type (D) and graphite type (G). Particle are a mixture of these types and the ratio of the two...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.emea.t52240053
EISBN: 978-1-62708-251-8
... particle shape. Source: Ref 2 Another solid-state transformation is the massive transformation in which a phase α changes crystalline structure as it transforms to phase β without a change in composition. A simple example of a massive transformation is the allotropic (crystal structure...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.pdub.t53420117
EISBN: 978-1-62708-310-2
... solution of one of the components, an allotropic phase of one of the components, or an intermetallic compound. Schematics of different types of peritectic phase diagrams are shown in Fig. 6.2 . Fig. 6.2 Typical peritectic phase diagrams. (a) Peritectic reaction α + liquid → β and peritectoid...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.fibtca.t52430107
EISBN: 978-1-62708-253-2
... structures. For example, titanium dioxide has three allotropic forms namely, anatase, brookite, and rutile. All of these allotropic forms have the same chemical formula, TiO 2 , but different crystal structures. Anatase has a tetragonal crystal structure, whereas brookite has an orthorhombic structure...