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alkaline environments

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Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cub.t66910193
EISBN: 978-1-62708-250-1
...Abstract Abstract Corrosive environments can be broadly classified as atmospheric, underground/soil, water, acidic, alkaline, and combinations of these. Complicating matters is the fact that there are important variables, for example, pH, temperature, and the presence of biological organisms...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cub.t66910021
EISBN: 978-1-62708-250-1
.... The characteristics include: conductivity of the solution, acidity and alkalinity, oxidizing power, degree of ionization, and solubility in the solution. These characteristics, in combination with the characteristics of the metal, will determine the corrosion behavior of a metal/environment combination. The chapter...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cub.t66910049
EISBN: 978-1-62708-250-1
... diagrams Environment pH, conditions E , V-SHE A → strong acid 0, strongly reducing 0 B → strong acid 0, mildly oxidizing 0.5 C → strong acid 0, strongly oxidizing 1.0 D → neutral 7, reducing −0.3 E → neutral 7, oxidizing 0.5 F → strong alkaline 14, strongly...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cub.t66910407
EISBN: 978-1-62708-250-1
... buildup of hydroxyl ions (increased alkalinity). This increased alkalinity can be harmful to an amphoteric metal such as aluminum. The alkaline environment breaks down the protective film on aluminum and can result in severe weight-loss corrosion. The increased alkalinity of the surface...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 1999
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.caaa.t67870075
EISBN: 978-1-62708-299-0
... to aluminum and corrodes preferentially, giving protection to aluminum. Magnesium is similarly protective, although in severe marine environments it causes cathodic corrosion of aluminum because of an alkaline condition produced on the aluminum surface. Cadmium is neutral to aluminum and can safely be used...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 July 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.fec.t65940001
EISBN: 978-1-62708-302-7
... corrosion supported by controlled pH (oxygen excluded, deaerated). (a) Acid, pH < 7. (b) Neutral or alkaline, pH ≥ 7 Uniform Corrosion with pH and Dissolved Oxygen as Variables When dissolved oxygen is present in the solution, usually from contact with air (aerated environment), the following...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cub.t66910331
EISBN: 978-1-62708-250-1
... for estimating corrosion performance Corrodent variables Environment type (marine, industrial, internal fluid, etc.) Main constituents (identity and amount) Impurities (identify and amount) Temperature pH Degree of aeration Velocity or agitation Pressure Estimated range of each...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.tpmpa.t54480331
EISBN: 978-1-62708-318-8
.... The reaction can be pyrophoric under severe circumstances. However, water is a powerful inhibitor to this reaction, even in concentrations as low as 1%. Alkaline Environments Titanium exhibits excellent resistance to alkaline environments at moderate temperatures. However, corrosion occurs in hot...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cub.9781627082501
EISBN: 978-1-62708-250-1
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cpi2.t55030039
EISBN: 978-1-62708-282-2
... concentration and mildly alkaline pH found in this analysis is a chemical environment that is different than is generally thought to exist in a pit or crevice of aluminum ( Ref 34 ). Pits and crevice sites usually involve acidic solutions because the metal cations formed by alloy dissolution react with water...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 October 2011
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mnm2.t53060369
EISBN: 978-1-62708-261-7
... be exposed to an environment at an alkaline pH higher than 8.5 to 9. This explains the passive carbon steel state when it is embedded in an alkaline (pH > 12 to 13) concrete environment, such as occurs in steel reinforcement. However, any changes of pH (below 8.5 to 9) remove the metal from...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.secwr.t68350011
EISBN: 978-1-62708-315-7
.... Attack by graphitic corrosion is reduced by alloy substitution (e.g., use of a ductile or alloyed iron rather than gray iron), altering the environment (raise the water pH to neutral or slightly alkaline levels), the use of inhibitors, and avoiding stagnant water conditions. Stress-Corrosion Cracking...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.fibtca.t52430204
EISBN: 978-1-62708-253-2
... as a product of a chemical reaction between iron and an acidic or alkaline environment on the ID side of the tube. Hydrogen damage is almost always associated with metal gouging. The gouging is evident as an irregular wastage of metal beneath the porous deposits. In general, the high-heat-flux zones...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 July 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.fec.t65940183
EISBN: 978-1-62708-302-7
.... Redrawn from Ref 28 Fig. 5.32 Anodic polarization curves for Hastelloy C (54 Ni, 2.5 Co, 15.5 Cr, 16 Mo, 5.5 Fe, and 0.06 C max, wt%), in the indicated environments. R.T., room temperature. Redrawn from Ref 29 Fig. 5.20 Representative anodic polarization curves for indicated pure...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mfub.t53740325
EISBN: 978-1-62708-308-9
... for phosphating Preparation for plating Removal of pigmented drawing compounds (a) Occasional or intermittent Hot emulsion hand slush, spray emulsion in single stage, vapor slush degrease (b) Boiling alkaline blow off, hand wipe Vapor slush degrease, hand wipe Acid clean (c) Hot emulsion hand...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cpi2.t55030005
EISBN: 978-1-62708-282-2
... transparent rust layer. This layer can also act as an effective physical barrier that stops corrosion. However, for this passive state to exist, the metal needs be exposed to an environment at an alkaline pH higher than 8.5 to 9. This explains the passive carbon steel state when it is embedded in an alkaline...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.stg2.t61280203
EISBN: 978-1-62708-267-9
... to improve component performance; however, many finishing operations commonly used for steel and other metals are not required for superalloys. This is due to: The inherent corrosion resistance of superalloys in a wide range of environments The fact that the end use of superalloy parts frequently...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cpi2.t55030089
EISBN: 978-1-62708-282-2
... environments but less so in neutral or alkaline conditions. On this basis, it is proposed that water treatments ensuring alkaline conditions should be less likely to induce HAZ corrosion, but even at a pH near 8, hydrogen ion (H + ) reduction can account for approximately 20% of the total corrosion current; pH...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cub.t66910237
EISBN: 978-1-62708-250-1
...Abstract Abstract All materials are susceptible to corrosion or some form of environmental degradation. Although no single material is suitable for all applications, usually there are a variety of materials that will perform satisfactorily in a given environment. The intent of this chapter...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cfap.t69780323
EISBN: 978-1-62708-281-5
... by depolymerization (unzipping) of the chains, which releases gaseous fragments that cause bubble formation, crazes, and crack formation. For example, polyoxymethylene can be depolymerized to formaldehyde in highly acidic or alkaline environments ( Ref 6 ). The incorporation of new chemical groups onto the polymer...