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alkaline electrolytes

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Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cub.t66910407
EISBN: 978-1-62708-250-1
... of steel reinforcing bars in concrete in highway bridges and parking garages. Steel in contact with concrete is typically in a passive condition due to the buildup of a protective film on steel in the alkaline electrolyte within the concrete. In the presence of chloride ions in the electrolyte...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mfub.t53740325
EISBN: 978-1-62708-308-9
... slush, spray emulsion in a single stage, hot rinse, hand wipe Hot alkaline soak, hot rinse (hand wipe, if possible) electrolytic alkaline, cold water rinse Continuous high production Conveyorized spray emulsion washer Alkaline soak, hot rinse alkaline spray, hot rinse Alkaline or acid (d) soak...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mgppis.t60400215
EISBN: 978-1-62708-258-7
... A series of micrographs of a fully spheroidized Fe-0.4% C alloy showing different etching response. (a) 4% picral, (b) boiling alkaline sodium picrate, (c) 2% nital etch, (d) Marshall’s reagent, (e) Beraha’s reagent, and (f) 15% sodium metabisulfite tint etch. 500× Etching Response—to Reveal Carbides...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cub.9781627082501
EISBN: 978-1-62708-250-1
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1984
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mpp.t67850165
EISBN: 978-1-62708-260-0
... of boiling alkaline sodium picrate to which 2% EDTA had been added colored only the cementite. Heat tinting (750°F, 10 min) colored cementite deep blue and phosphide light tan. Other examples of the use of tint etchants appear throughout this chapter. 3-2.5 Electrolytic Etching As described in Chap...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 1999
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.caaa.t67870075
EISBN: 978-1-62708-299-0
... active and passive behavior. The rate of attack depends on (a) the difference in corrosion potentials between the two metals, (b) the electrical resistance between the two metals, (c) the conductivity of the electrolyte, (d) the cathode-anode area ratio, and (e) the polarization characteristics...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cub.t66910049
EISBN: 978-1-62708-250-1
... diagrams Environment pH, conditions E , V-SHE A → strong acid 0, strongly reducing 0 B → strong acid 0, mildly oxidizing 0.5 C → strong acid 0, strongly oxidizing 1.0 D → neutral 7, reducing −0.3 E → neutral 7, oxidizing 0.5 F → strong alkaline 14, strongly...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ttg2.t61120085
EISBN: 978-1-62708-269-3
... heated for 1 h at 425 °C(795 °F) Mass (barrel) finishing conditions for titanium parts Table 11.4 Mass (barrel) finishing conditions for titanium parts Capacity, Barrel size diam Width Speed, rev/min Part load Medium (a) Water Abrasive compound (b) Alkaline cleaner (c) m 3...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.stg2.t61280203
EISBN: 978-1-62708-267-9
..., and handprints, remained on the parts despite the solvent cleaning and vapor degreasing to which the parts were subjected before being heat treated. These soils were decomposing during heat treatment and causing carbon diffusion. The substitution of electrolytic alkaline cleaning for the methods previously used...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.secwr.t68350011
EISBN: 978-1-62708-315-7
... chloride-dihydrate, 35 °C (95°F). Galvanic coupling due to copper salt reduction to copper metal. More severe than ASTM B 117 FACT (formerly ASTM B 538) Testing anodized aluminum specimens. Electrolyte as in salt spray or CASS test. Specimen is made the cathode to generate high pH at defects...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cpi2.9781627082822
EISBN: 978-1-62708-282-2
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 October 2011
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mnm2.t53060369
EISBN: 978-1-62708-261-7
... steel screen that was exposed to printing press exhaust fumes. (a) Unetched, picture width ~6 mm. (b) Enlarged view of the cracks. 10% oxalic acid electrolytic etch, picture width ~1.5 mm. Source: Ref 15.5 , courtesy of M. Chaudhari Fig. 15.14 Pourbaix diagram (metal potential vs. pH...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cpi2.t55030039
EISBN: 978-1-62708-282-2
... sites (and pits) led to the river pattern of attack outside the initial localized corrosion sites. Fig. 5 Confocal laser scanning micrographs of air aged nickel alloys after cyclic potentiodynamic polarization testing with a crevice former in place at 95 °C in pH 7.75 electrolyte...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cub.t66910193
EISBN: 978-1-62708-250-1
...Abstract Abstract Corrosive environments can be broadly classified as atmospheric, underground/soil, water, acidic, alkaline, and combinations of these. Complicating matters is the fact that there are important variables, for example, pH, temperature, and the presence of biological organisms...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 1999
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.lmcs.t66560453
EISBN: 978-1-62708-291-4
.... Alkaline Chromate Composition Dissolve chromic acid in water. Add caustic solid very slowly over at least 5 min. Method of Use Heat solution to boiling point (118 to 120 °C). Immerse specimen for 5 to 20 min. Remove quickly and place in a container of cold water. Rinse and dry...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cpi2.t55030005
EISBN: 978-1-62708-282-2
.... Mater. Sci. , Vol 28 , 1993 , p 2589 – 2606 10.1007/BF00356194 41. Zhang S.H. and Lyon S.B. , The Electrochemistry of Iron, Zinc and Copper in Thin Layer of Electrolytes , Corros. Sci. , Vol 35 ( N.S. 1–4 ), 1993 , p 713 – 718 10.1016/0010-938X(93)90207-W 42...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 July 2009
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.bcp.t52230093
EISBN: 978-1-62708-298-3
... column, known as the alkaline earths and including magnesium, calcium, strontium, barium, and radium. All these elements have an electronic ground state of 1s 2 2s 2 , and below this ns 2 shell, every element has a complete inert gas core of electrons. With the s shell completed, the chemistry...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ssde.t52310193
EISBN: 978-1-62708-286-0
... and performance. The surface can be made reflective or matte, ground or mechanically patterned, coated, painted, plated, or oxidized. It can be treated chemically or electrolytically. The surface can be altered on an atomic basis, sometimes producing profoundly different mechanical and corrosion-resistant...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 1999
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.caaa.t67870045
EISBN: 978-1-62708-299-0
...Pitting potentials determined on aluminum at 25 °C (77 °F) Table 1 Pitting potentials determined on aluminum at 25 °C (77 °F) Electrolyte Pitting potential, V vs. SHE (a) Reference High-purity (99.99%) Al 0.1 M NaCl −0.40 6 0.1 M NaCl −0.46 7 0.5 M NaCl...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 1999
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.caaa.t67870191
EISBN: 978-1-62708-299-0
... of detecting leaks, cavitation, corrosion fatigue, pitting, and stress-corrosion cracking in vessels and Lines. Infrequent Zero-resistance ammeter Galvanic current between dissimilar metal electrodes in suitable electrolyte Indicate polarity and direction of bimetallic corrosion. Useful as dewpoint...